دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 4999
عنوان فارسی مقاله

مطالب تبلیغاتی اینترنت و حفاظت گردشگری داوطلبانه انگیزش های توریستی: مطالعه موردی انتخاب سازمان ها و پروژه ها

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
4999 2012 11 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
خرید مقاله
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عنوان انگلیسی
Internet promotional material and conservation volunteer tourist motivations: A case study of selecting organizations and projects
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Tourism Management Perspectives, Volume 1, January 2012, Pages 17–27

کلمات کلیدی
/ - حفاظت گردشگری داوطلبانه - انگیزه - فشار / جلو​​ راندن - مطالب تبلیغاتی - اینترنت
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله مطالب تبلیغاتی اینترنت و حفاظت گردشگری داوطلبانه انگیزش های توریستی: مطالعه موردی انتخاب سازمان ها و پروژه ها

چکیده انگلیسی

Although much research has discussed why tourists volunteer abroad, little work has explored the role of promotional material (e.g., internet websites) in volunteer decisions. We examined if promotional material played a motivating role in volunteer tourists' decision to select specific organizations or conservation projects, and if so, what in the material influenced their choices. We also identified types of promotional material used and how volunteers accessed this information. To collect data, we engaged in participant observation and conducted interviews at a conservation volunteer project in Ecuador with 36 volunteer tourists, 2 managers, and 3 volunteer coordinators. Findings revealed that volunteers almost exclusively used the internet to search for volunteer tourism opportunities. Volunteer decisions to select the organization or project were influenced by both website appearance (e.g., organized, professional) and specific content (e.g., photographs, volunteer comments, project descriptions, buzzwords). We discuss implications for managers and organizations, tourism theory, and future research.

مقدمه انگلیسی

The number of people traveling to other countries to volunteer for conservation or humanitarian projects has increased substantially in the past three decades (Brown & Morrison, 2003). These tourists “volunteer in an organized way to undertake holidays that might involve aiding or alleviating the material poverty of some groups in society, the restoration of certain environments, or research into aspects of society or environment” (Wearing, 2001, p. 1). Some volunteers apply to intermediary organizations (e.g., i-to-i) or non-governmental organizations (NGOs), whereas others contact project sites directly. With the growth of volunteer tourism, research on the subject has also increased. Popular topics of study include motivations (e.g., Broad, 2003, Brown and Lehto, 2005, Campbell and Smith, 2005, Galley and Clifton, 2004, Söderman and Snead, 2008, Ureily et al., 2003, Wearing, 2001 and Wearing, 2004) and values (e.g., Campbell and Smith, 2006 and Halpenny and Caissie, 2003). Researchers have also focused on benefits of volunteer tourism, including volunteer self-fulfillment and personal growth, helping projects and contributing new insights, spreading knowledge, positive host–guest relationships, and positive social movements (e.g., Brown and Lehto, 2005, Foster-Smith and Evans, 2003, Lepp, 2008, McGehee, 2002, McGehee and Santos, 2005, Ruhanen et al., 2008 and Wearing, 2001). Although some of these researchers interviewed only volunteers, others also talked with community members and project staff to determine their impressions of benefits and disadvantages of volunteer tourism (e.g., Clifton and Benson, 2006, Coghlan, 2008, Gray and Campbell, 2007, Lepp, 2008, McIntosh and Zahra, 2008 and Sin, 2010). Few researchers, however, have explicitly addressed the influence of promotional material (e.g., brochures, internet websites) in motivating volunteers, especially specific content or images in this material that attract volunteers to projects or organizations (e.g., Coghlan, 2007, Cousins et al., 2009 and Simpson, 2004). When researchers have discussed connections between promotional material and motivations, it usually has been ancillary to the main focus of their research or examined in relation to how this material appealed to motivations for volunteering abroad more generally (e.g., adventure, danger; Ansell, 2008 and Simpson, 2005). Researchers who have explored how promotional material influenced volunteer decisions about organizations and projects often employed textual analysis of the material, but rarely interviewed volunteers directly to verify if and how this material played a motivating role (e.g., Coghlan, 2007 and Young, 2008). Not understanding the role of promotional material in influencing volunteer decisions is an important knowledge gap because in the increasingly competitive volunteer tourism market, projects and organizations must advertise projects and services to recruit volunteers necessary for monetary and physical support (Cousins et al., 2009). Organizations and project managers could benefit from and create effective promotional material by understanding: (a) if this material played a role in motivating volunteers to choose organizations and projects, (b) types of promotional material used by volunteers, (c) how volunteers accessed this information, and (d) topics in promotional material that played a motivating role. To address these issues, we interviewed volunteer tourists, project managers,2 and volunteer coordinators to explore how and what factors in promotional material motivated individuals to select organizations and conservation project sites. This work advances motivation research and may aid organizations and project managers in recruiting volunteer tourists for conservation work.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

The number of people traveling to other countries to volunteer for conservation or humanitarian projects has increased substantially in the past three decades (Brown & Morrison, 2003). These tourists “volunteer in an organized way to undertake holidays that might involve aiding or alleviating the material poverty of some groups in society, the restoration of certain environments, or research into aspects of society or environment” (Wearing, 2001, p. 1). Some volunteers apply to intermediary organizations (e.g., i-to-i) or non-governmental organizations (NGOs), whereas others contact project sites directly. With the growth of volunteer tourism, research on the subject has also increased. Popular topics of study include motivations (e.g., Broad, 2003, Brown and Lehto, 2005, Campbell and Smith, 2005, Galley and Clifton, 2004, Söderman and Snead, 2008, Ureily et al., 2003, Wearing, 2001 and Wearing, 2004) and values (e.g., Campbell and Smith, 2006 and Halpenny and Caissie, 2003). Researchers have also focused on benefits of volunteer tourism, including volunteer self-fulfillment and personal growth, helping projects and contributing new insights, spreading knowledge, positive host–guest relationships, and positive social movements (e.g., Brown and Lehto, 2005, Foster-Smith and Evans, 2003, Lepp, 2008, McGehee, 2002, McGehee and Santos, 2005, Ruhanen et al., 2008 and Wearing, 2001). Although some of these researchers interviewed only volunteers, others also talked with community members and project staff to determine their impressions of benefits and disadvantages of volunteer tourism (e.g., Clifton and Benson, 2006, Coghlan, 2008, Gray and Campbell, 2007, Lepp, 2008, McIntosh and Zahra, 2008 and Sin, 2010). Few researchers, however, have explicitly addressed the influence of promotional material (e.g., brochures, internet websites) in motivating volunteers, especially specific content or images in this material that attract volunteers to projects or organizations (e.g., Coghlan, 2007, Cousins et al., 2009 and Simpson, 2004). When researchers have discussed connections between promotional material and motivations, it usually has been ancillary to the main focus of their research or examined in relation to how this material appealed to motivations for volunteering abroad more generally (e.g., adventure, danger; Ansell, 2008 and Simpson, 2005). Researchers who have explored how promotional material influenced volunteer decisions about organizations and projects often employed textual analysis of the material, but rarely interviewed volunteers directly to verify if and how this material played a motivating role (e.g., Coghlan, 2007 and Young, 2008). Not understanding the role of promotional material in influencing volunteer decisions is an important knowledge gap because in the increasingly competitive volunteer tourism market, projects and organizations must advertise projects and services to recruit volunteers necessary for monetary and physical support (Cousins et al., 2009). Organizations and project managers could benefit from and create effective promotional material by understanding: (a) if this material played a role in motivating volunteers to choose organizations and projects, (b) types of promotional material used by volunteers, (c) how volunteers accessed this information, and (d) topics in promotional material that played a motivating role. To address these issues, we interviewed volunteer tourists, project managers,2 and volunteer coordinators to explore how and what factors in promotional material motivated individuals to select organizations and conservation project sites. This work advances motivation research and may aid organizations and project managers in recruiting volunteer tourists for conservation work.

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