تجزیه و تحلیل انگیزش، خطر سفر، و رضایت از سفر در دانشجویان تایوان در کار و برنامه های سفر خارج از کشور: مقیاس های اندازه گیری در حال توسعه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|5062||2012||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Tourism Management Perspectives, Volumes 2–3, April–July 2012, Pages 35–46
Travel is an increasingly important aspiration for young people around the world. In order to explore other places and their culture, and to relax, have fun, and save money to travel, combining overseas work and travel is now a popular young students' activity. Such student travel has a history of 30 years and in 2011 7 countries have permitted a work and travel visa to be issued to Taiwanese students. Every year almost over 3000 Taiwanese young people travel overseas, especially to the United States of America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and Japan, to both work and travel in those countries. There they can improve their language skills, expand their international viewpoints and experience different cultures. This study looks at the relationships between work and travel overseas motivations, perceived travel risk and satisfaction for young people, and uses a sample of 151 Taiwanese undergraduates working and traveling in the U.S.A., Australia and New Zealand during 2008 to 2010. Three hypothesized relationships are examined with reference to perceived risk, motivation and satisfaction and measurement scales are proposed.
The purpose of this paper is to develop scales that permit an examination of attitudes toward and appraisals of an experience of working holidays by a sample of Taiwanese university students. A framework for this is suggested and is based upon the dimensions of motivation, travel risk and an evaluation of the experience. The study is primarily descriptive as it based on a relatively small sample of students, but as described below the sample was sufficiently large enough to permit some statistical calculations based on data derived from a self-completion questionnaire. These calculations suggest that the scales developed to measure these possess internal consistency and validity. The paper is based on the premise that within the global village, letting young people develop broader world views has become more important. Additionally it is noted that combining work and travel overseas has become popular among the Asian young in recent years. Consequently, the youth travel market can separate into different categories including: joining study tours, international volunteer organizations, and work and travel overseas. According to the Federation of International Youth Travel Organization (FIYTO), youth travel accounts for 20% of the tourism population, and it has been suggested that youth travel is a significant niche market in terms of size and importance for specific industry sectors (Chinese Taipei (TAIWAN) Youth Hostel Association, 2007). Work and travel overseas has been popular for over 30 years. There are about 23 countries issuing visas permitting work and travel overseas, and Taiwan is one of them. Since 2004, Taiwan has signed agreements with Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Canada, and Germany on issuing work and travel visas, and U.S., Australia, and New Zealand are favored destinations. Work and travel overseas not only allows young people to experience local cultures and learn things from their working experience, but also lets them have more opportunities to make friends with people from all over the world. Many countries aggressively offer more opportunities on work and travel overseas to not only enable young people to learn things in multiple ways and interact with more people, but also improve local tourism at the same time. Work and travel overseas combines three fundamental elements: traveling, learning, and experiencing. Richards (2007), according to the survey done by World Youth Student and Educational (WYSE) Travel Confederation, found that 70% of young travelers valued travel for exploration, learning languages, doing volunteer work, and gaining work experience. Moreover, 34% stated that exploring foreign lands and cultures was their main aim in making trips; 28% took relaxation and fun as their primary objective; while 9% studied abroad and 7% regard working as their main aim. What makes work and travel overseas unique is that young people work to pay for their living and traveling expenses, while being able to arrange entertainments or short trips in their spare time or after finishing work on either a daily or trip basis. However, there are dangers and risks to which such travelers may be exposed. Thus they need to deal with potential challenges and learn to participate in international affairs with an assertive attitude. In short, the processes of travel, work and overcoming problems cannot only help advance study and careers, but also enrich their lives. There exists a substantial literature on youth related study tours and travel (Byram and Feng, 2006, Carlson and Widaman, 1988, Dolby, 2004, Kitsantas, 2004 and McCabe, 1994), but very few researchers have dealt with organized work and overseas travel arrangements, and the concept may deserve further research. The purpose of this study attempts a deeper understanding on the background and traveling style of Taiwanese university students who participate in work and travel overseas, and how motivation, potential risks in travel, and the satisfaction of applicants are influenced by and are related to each other.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The purpose of this study is to develop means of measuring student perceptions and motivations for working holidays within a Taiwanese context, and to provide indicative findings for this segment of tourism. From the structural equation model it was found that the “Learn and Experience”, “Shopping and Food”, and “Experiences of Foreign Culture” were confirmed as the main motives for taking working holidays. Satisfaction is greatest for “Development of Self”, “Leisure and Recreation”, “Experiences”, and “Revisit Intention”. Moreover, the SEM model paths also show us that motivation has a significant effect on travel satisfaction, and so supports Yoon and Uysal (2005). The travel risk of work and travel overseas includes the “Environmental and Social Risk”, “Economic and Systematic Risk”, and “Agent and Work Place Risk”. “Economic and Systematic Risk” and “Agent and Work Place Risk” are the two most important risk factors. One tentative finding from this study is that travel risk has a significant positive effect on participating motivation of undergraduates, but not on travel satisfaction. Compared to previous research in tourism related studies, the differences between travel risk and participating motivation are identified. It is suggested that those working overseas are akin to adventure tourists. They prefer to discover different learning and experience, shopping and food, and foreign culture and to undertake various risks when overseas. In conclusion, work and travel overseas is known to be a special experience in an undergraduate's overall life. Even though many potential risks exist most undergraduates enjoy different experiences and acquire self-improvement. The question is, how might these motives, evaluations and perceived risks be measured? Any findings are dependent upon the measurement scales being valid, and with regard to this, as described above, the use of EFA and CFA indicated that the scales are effective as forms of measurement and permitted results to be calculated for this sample. However there are notable limitations to the paper and the work. First it must be noted that the sample is both small in size and convenient in nature. Second, it can be argued that using the same sample set for both EFA and CFA is oxymoronic as the two modes of analysis are based upon different premises, namely the exploratory and the confirmatory and data cannot be used for both purposes simultaneously. On the other hand, building a structural model based solely upon theory and without reference to data may be misleading as the latent variables that emerge from raw data may differ from those assumed by theory, so the two techniques are indeed complementary in the fashion used here, and thus CFA can also be used as an exploratory technique (e.g. see Chang, Ryan, Tsai, & Wen, 2012). Thirdly the data set fails the sample set tests established by Wichura (1988) and Westland (2010). Westland points out that sample size in the case of SEM is not a simple linear function of indicator counts, but rests on non-linear relationships between indicators, latent functions and observations. He suggests a number of potential algorithms to calculate required sample sizes and simply put, the sample in this study fails to reach the required number to permit any form of generalization, even within the context of Taiwan. However, given the pattern of results obtained it is suggested that the paper contributes to the literature in two ways. First it offers an insight into the Taiwanese student market for working holidays and the factors that are in play for this market. Second, it suggests a series of items that appear to possess validity in creating measures for future study of the working holiday market with reference to motives, evaluations and perceived risks.