مناطق روستایی در جامعه اطلاعاتی : کاهش فاصله یا افزایش ظرفیت یادگیری ؟
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|5094||2000||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6265 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Rural Studies, Volume 16, Issue 1, January 2000, Pages 13–21
This paper examines the prospects for rural areas within the Information Society, referring particularly to the EU experience. Among these are the diminishing effects of distance from core markets and enhancing the learning capacities of rural areas by improving access to relevant information. EU policy to date has been influenced by a strong technology dimension with an emphasis on the installation of necessary infrastructure and equipment. There is an increasing awareness, however, of the need to focus on the social dimension, as scepticism grows about wasted resources, poorly thought out projects and false expectations. Teleworking, which was widely hyped as the best prospect for rural areas, continues to be predominantly an urban or suburban phenomenon. Although the new technologies are no substitute for entrepreneurship, the potential they present, within a more enlightened policy environment, should not be underestimated.
This paper explores the prospects for rural areas within the emerging Information Society. While acknowledging the many problems associated with urban locations, such as congestion and social exclusion, the particular obstacles inhibiting the development of rural areas are highlighted. The potential which the new Information and Communication Technologies offer such areas for overcoming the negative effects of distance from core markets is explored, while downplaying the exaggerated claims for the `death of distance'. There is little doubt that major changes in the geography of economic activity are being brought about in part by the new technologies. These changes are primarily a consequence of a restructuring process within capitalism since the 1970s, as large corporations sought more flexible forms of organising their activities globally. While the new ICTs do present opportunities for indigenous companies in remote areas to become connected with larger markets internationally, they also present a serious threat to rural areas by facilitating their integration into the global economy. The experience to date within Europe, in helping rural areas exploit the new technologies is explored, and some important lessons for policymakers are suggested.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper has attempted to outline the prospects for rural areas within the Information Society. Increasingly, these prospects have been assessed in terms of diminishing the effects of distance from core markets, which has long had a negative effect on the economic potential of rural areas. The prospects can also be considered in terms of the potential of rural areas exploiting the new technologies in order to enhance their learning capacity by improving their access to relevant information. The experience to date has not been encouraging on many fronts, but it is still too early in the diffusion process to underestimate the future potential of the new technologies. The limited level of success to date may be accounted for by a number of reasons. The emphasis within the European Union has been on the installation of infrastructure and equipment, which is understandable in the early stages of the diffusion process. This installation has not progressed in an even manner spatially, and many rural areas find themselves at a disadvantage in terms of access to and the cost of sophisticated infrastructure and advanced services. In some cases where remote regions, such as the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, were given a headstart in relation to installing ISDN, the uptake of services by business was very disappointing. It would be a grave error on the part of policy-makers, however, to assume that this limited success is an argument against the installation of suitable technologies in rural areas for accessing international networks. The emphasis on the technological dimension of the new technologies has had a strong influence in EU policy making to date, although there is some evidence of a growing awareness of the need to give much more attention to the social dimension of the Information Society. Technological determinism has given rise to false expectations, wastage of funds and increased scepticism about the real potential. There have been many examples of poorly thought out projects, designed more to suit the objectives of suppliers of equipment and services than of potential users. Teleworking, which has been widely hyped as providing the greatest scope to the periphery for exploiting ICTs, has evolved mainly as an urban or suburban form of decentralisation. Only a small minority of highly skilled professionals, possessing well-established market connections, has been in a position to sustain economic activity in remote areas. Despite the many disappointments, it would be a serious error to underestimate the potential that ICTs can contribute towards rural development within a more enlightened policy framework. A different approach is required, which appreciates the fundamentally subordinate role which technology must play within an integrated strategy. Technology cannot substitute for entrepreneurship nor for well thought out strategies for development. No doubt there will be some surprises as in the case of the Internet, but there will be no authentic realisation of the potential until a much greater emphasis is placed on enhancing human dimension.