چهارچوب سازمانی اجرای دورکاری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|5099||2001||17 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 68, Issue 3, November 2001, Pages 275–291
The large-scale implementation of teleworking has not yet occurred in the industrialized world. This fact is in contrast to earlier predictions that viewed teleworking as the main organizational form of the electronic age that would largely eliminate work-related commuting. The slow adoption of the teleworking practice calls for a careful analysis of all elements that may influence the implementation of teleworking. The present article reports the empirical findings of a survey conducted among firms in Brussels, the Belgian and EU capital. The article's main objective is to identify the drivers and constraints relevant to the implementation of teleworking in the Brussels business environment. Furthermore, some insights are provided into the perceived social and economic advantages and disadvantages of teleworking implementation. Finally, the potential effectiveness of various policy tools to promote teleworking is assessed.
In the late 1970s and the 1980s, teleworking was perceived as the work arrangement of the future. Commentators then predicted the large-scale implementation of teleworking at the end of the 1980s and in the early 1990s , , ,  and . The teleworking “boom,” however, has not yet taken place. This is surprising, as recent developments in information and communication technology (ICT) have reduced the coordination and control costs associated with the geographic decentralization of the work force's location, especially in large, service organizations. The centralization of staff in a single office is no longer necessarily the most efficient way to organize economic activity . In the next section, a simple conceptual framework is developed that includes several variables related to the implementation of teleworking. The in-depth analysis of the parameters included in this model should allow explanation of the present low penetration levels of teleworking. The second section describes in more detail the model's organizational component relevant to the implementation of teleworking. The analysis builds upon the empirical findings of a survey conducted among a large number of human resources managers of large firms in Brussels. In the third section, some insights are provided into the economic and social advantages and disadvantages of teleworking, as perceived by both firms already implementing teleworking and companies that have not yet contemplated implementing teleworking. Finally, in the fourth section, the potential of three policy tools that could be helpful to promote the teleworking practice, is evaluated.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The individual's decision of whether or not to telework is influenced by a variety of technological, institutional, and organizational elements. A number of insights were gained into the organizational drivers of—and barriers to—the implementation of teleworking through a survey conducted among 83 firms in Brussels. The lack of awareness of the “teleworking” concept, direct supervision as the main coordination and control mechanism, mainly sequential information flows, mainly intraregional (local) commuting, and a substantial part of the employees with temporary contracts appear to be the five most important firm-level barriers that prevent the implementation of teleworking. In contrast, a firm becomes motivated to implement teleworking if one or several of the following 10 drivers are present, namely, when it is (1) active in a knowledge-based sector, (2) located in a congested area, (3) characterized by a high level of electronic communication, (4) driven mainly by output-oriented coordination and control systems, (5) focused on nonroutine decision making, (6) building upon team organization, (7) experienced in the use of flexible work hours, (8) experienced in outsourcing, (9) characterized by a high number of employees, (10) characterized by a high proportion of white collar workers and a high proportion of employees with a high education level. The empirical evidence further suggests that both HR managers of companies already implementing teleworking and HR managers of companies that do not yet implement it, have similar views on the advantages of teleworking. However, the former identify far fewer disadvantages. Finally, according to the HR managers, the most effective policy tool to promote teleworking is likely to be the distribution of information on “best practices.”