رهبری مدیریت ، توانمندسازی کارکنان، رضایت شغلی، رضایت مشتری در سازمان های TQM : یک مطالعه تجربی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|5247||2000||26 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||12000 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Quality Management, Volume 5, Issue 2, 3rd Quarter 2000, Pages 247–272
Top management leadership and employee empowerment are considered two of the most important principles of total quality management (TQM) because of their assumed relationship with customer satisfaction. As a result, many top management leadership and employee empowerment strategies and practices have been suggested in the management literature. However, few studies have been done to test this assumed relationship and determine which of these strategies and practices may be most effective in bringing about the intended results. This study surveyed organizations that have adopted TQM to determine the relationship between top management leadership, employees' empowerment, job satisfaction, and customers' satisfaction. The results reveal positive correlation between top management leadership, employee empowerment, job satisfaction, and customer satisfaction. Employee empowerment and improved levels of job satisfaction are facilitated by top management leadership and commitment to the TQM goal of customer satisfaction by creating an organizational climate that emphasizes total quality and customer satisfaction. Effective strategies for achieving employee empowerment and job satisfaction, together with top management leadership roles in a TQM environment, are identified and discussed.
Today, more than ever, the long-term survival of many manufacturing and service organizations is considered to be inextricably linked to the ability of these organizations to produce goods and services that meet or exceed customers' quality expectations. Therefore, organizations are searching for approaches to managing people and production systems in ways that assure the transformation of inputs into quality outputs that meet or exceed customers' expectations. Total quality management (TQM), because of its focus on customer satisfaction, arguably is the most widely discussed approach to directing organizational efforts toward the goal of customer satisfaction. Its tenets are continuous improvement, top management leadership commitment to the goal of customer satisfaction, employee empowerment, and customer focus. Advocates of TQM hold that the goal of customer satisfaction is achieved through top management commitment to creating an organizational climate that empowers employees and focuses all efforts on the goal of customer satisfaction. A positive relationship between leadership and commitment, and employee empowerment (leading to job satisfaction) with customer satisfaction is assumed. Both the trade and academic literatures on TQM suggest many different top leadership strategies and practices for empowering or involving employees in quality-related decision-making processes. However, few empirical studies, outside of the Malcolm Baldridge Award program, have been done to sufficiently document these relationships and to determine which of the many suggested strategies and practices are effective in bringing about the intended results (employee empowerment, job satisfaction, and superior customer satisfaction). This study surveyed organizations that formally introduced TQM as a means for identifying the management strategies and practices that are effective in bringing about employee empowerment, employee job satisfaction, and, ultimately, customer satisfaction. The objective of this study is to provide empirical assessment of the assumed relationship between top management leadership and commitment, employee empowerment, job satisfaction, and customer satisfaction. Such assessment should provide guidance to organizations in the design of empowerment and job satisfaction components of their TQM programs. Another objective is to provide empirical assessment for the TQM-based literature.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The overall results of this study support the findings of earlier studies that suggest the existence of relationships between top management leadership, employee empowerment (i.e., delegation of decision-making authority), and employee job satisfaction. This finding supports Fulford and Enz (1995) who found the perception of empowerment to impact employee loyalty, concern for others, and job satisfaction. Also, employee job satisfaction induced by job-related factors could in turn lead to improved customer satisfaction Bhagat, 1982, Caldwell, 1984, Chacko, 1982, Ford, 1973, Hackman, 1977, Herzberg, 1968, Herzberg et al., 1959, Kim, 1984, Latham & Steele, 1983, Lawler et al., 1992, MacGregor, 1960, Petty et al., 1984, Thomas & Velthouse, 1990 and Vroom, 1964. Successful TQM programs involve and empower employees, according to our study, by putting in place processes that bring multiple perspectives to bear on quality decisions, and delegating sufficient authority to employees to make both individual and collective decisions. Additionally, we found that these TQM organizations have communication systems that facilitate lateral and vertical flows of information critical to total quality objectives and actively involve employees in the definition of the organization's quality mission and objectives. Furthermore, these programs empower employees to resolve customers' complaints quickly and effectively, and continuously train employees on teamwork, problem recognition, and problem-solving skills. Another finding is that employees' involvement or participation in TQM is facilitated by employee satisfaction with communication at lower organizational levels, availability of job requirement information, enhanced promotion, and development opportunities, and availability of information about the organization's values, vision, and strategies. Employee satisfaction with the organization's reward and recognition systems, organizational adjustment to a total quality culture, training and retraining programs that facilitate continuous improvement, and health and safety provisions in the job environment also facilitate employee involvement and participation in TQM programs. These findings are consistent with the assertions of Caldwell (1984), Gufreda, Maynard, and Lytle (1990), Lawler et al. (1992), and Tannenbaum, Weschler, and Massarik (1961) that effective participative management requires an organizational culture that supports employee involvement (an element of employee empowerment). The resulting improvement in employee job satisfaction then leads to improved customer satisfaction. The findings also suggest a strong and active role for top management in creating an organizational culture that promotes total quality. These top management roles should include initiating and maintaining a total quality culture by being actively involved in reviewing progress of critical quality programs; making available sufficient resources to implement total quality initiatives; and devising credible reward systems that recognize employees' and managers' contributions to total quality objectives throughout the organization. Finally, we found a strong relationship between employee empowerment and job satisfaction, and between job satisfaction and customer satisfaction. Besides these findings, our study shows that employees are generally receptive to the idea of empowerment. However, they are not enthusiastic about being empowered to judge and either accept or reject the quality of the work of peers. This, perhaps, is due to employees' desires to avoid interpersonal conflicts (that may result from the exercise of such authority) and to maintain group cohesiveness that contributes to effective teamwork and group performance Idstein, 1993 and Whitney & Smith, 1983. The value of this study is the empirical basis it provides for some frequently suggested management practices and strategies for achieving employee empowerment and participation in TQM organizations. The findings provide a prescriptive outline for the design and implementation of employee empowerment, top management leadership and commitment roles, and job satisfaction components of a TQM program. Additionally, the findings support previous studies that suggest a strong association between employee empowerment and customer satisfaction (e.g., Miller & Monge, 1986 and Wooldridge & Floyd, 1990). However, they disagree with those that found only a modest association between employee empowerment and customer satisfaction Adam, 1991 and Locke & Schweiger, 1979. The findings can provide managers with a framework for formulating employee empowerment strategies, top management leadership roles based on what has worked in many organizations that have successful TQM programs. In service organizations, especially, a perception of satisfaction by customers, to a great extent, depends on the quality of the interaction between employees and the customer. As noted in the Literature ReviewSchlesinger & Heskett, 1991 and Schlesinger & Zomitsky, 1991, this interaction needs to be a pleasant experience for the customer. Obviously, employees who find their jobs unpleasant cannot convey pleasantness to customers during this interaction. This, according to our findings, underscores the importance of employees who are satisfied with their jobs as a result of their empowerment and perception of the emphasis that organizational culture places on quality. This, again, is facilitated by top management leadership and commitment to the creation of a total quality culture that emphasizes, among other things, employee empowerment in terms of their participation and involvement in the organizational decision-making processes and their access to job requirement information. Finally, there is an ongoing debate about the merits of TQM because not every organization has realized the associated benefits. This may not be due to the failure of TQM as a management philosophy but to its half-hearted implementation. As shown in this study, some organizations are willing to implement only those aspects of TQM supported by the existing organizational culture, and are not willing to undertake the total cultural transformation that TQM requires. For example, as we noted earlier, most employees did not feel that they had been given sufficient authority to reject or accept the quality of their own work. Second, most did not agree that they were actively involved in the definition of the organization's total quality missions and objectives. These views, if widely held, can undermine the effectiveness of TQM efforts in these organizations. The fact that an organization claims to have a TQM program does not necessarily mean that TQM is fully and well implemented.