برون سپاری به بازارهای در حال ظهور: دیدگاه های نظری و مفاهیم سیاست گذاری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|525||2009||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of International Management, Volume 15, Issue 2, June 2009, Pages 156–168
Creating value through outsourcing has emerged as a popular competitive strategy for firms in various industries. In order to survive in the domestic and international marketplaces, firms, especially in developed countries, are seeking opportunities offshore, which is one focus of globalization. Offshore outsourcing has emerged as a popular competitive strategy and emerging markets have become increasingly attractive locations. As firms in developed countries (e.g., the US) continue to face enormous challenges to sustain competitive advantage, outsourcing to emerging markets is becoming an increasingly important source of business renewal and corporate transformation. In spite of the growing strategic significance of sourcing, we have limited knowledge of offshoring and outsourcing to emerging markets. The objectives of this review are fourfold: (1) to provide a better understanding of the concepts of offshoring and outsourcing business models, (2) to discuss relevant theoretical perspectives related to outsourcing, (3) to present a taxonomy of outsourcing strategies drawing on the extant literature, and (4) to discuss public policy implications. Conclusions and direction for future research are provided.
Over the past several decades, the economies of the world have become increasingly interdependent, and organizations have come under tremendous pressure to maximize productivity and profitability. Creating value through outsourcing has emerged as a popular competitive strategy for firms of all sizes in all types of industries. To survive in the domestic and international marketplaces, firms, especially in developed countries, are seeking opportunities offshore, which is one focus of globalization. As firms in developed countries strive for competitive advantage, outsourcing to emerging markets is becoming an increasingly important source of business activity and corporate transformation (Graf and Mudambi, 2005, Kakabadse and Kakabadse, 2005, Kotabe et al., 2008a, Kotabe et al., 2008b and Kotabe and Zhao, 2002). Sourcing refers to identifying which production units will serve which markets, and where will they get the components or processes required for production (Kotabe and Murray, 2004, Davidson, 1982, Kotabe, 1993 and Swamidass and Kotabe, 1993). Outsourcing has become an activity in the firm's business value chain, whereby competitive advantage may be gained when products and services are produced effectively and economically by outside suppliers (Kotabe et al., 2008a, Kotabe et al., 2008b and McCarthy and Anagnostou, 2004). In other words, outsourcing refers to contracting with an outside entity to perform a particular process or function for a firm (Kotabe and Zhao, 2002). For example, some components (e.g., raw materials), general parts and/or processes (e.g., accounting, data entry, and billing) can be procured more cost-effectively in low-cost emerging economies such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Outsourcing is not a new phenomenon and has existed for a long time (Kotabe, 1993). The advent of the Internet in the last decade, coupled with globalization, has further expanded outsourcing possibilities. These possibilities have emerged due to availability of highly trained low-cost manpower and natural resources in various emerging markets. The economic growth of Asian countries, coupled with trained manpower availability at much lower costs, have shifted not only the balance of international trade, but also has resulted in significant outsourcing to many emerging economies such as China and India. For example, Cisco Systems profitably outsources its business activities to many emerging economies to reduce costs and to utilize global skills to expand its manufacturing and systems capabilities. Recently, in an expansion wave, companies such as IBM, Accenture, and Capgemini have quietly expanded to India to take advantage of lower costs abroad (McDougal, 2006). In general, it is understood that outsourcing has the potential to bring about fundamental changes in a firm's value chain. In spite of the growing significance of global sourcing, we have a limited knowledge of offshoring and outsourcing to emerging markets (Kotabe et al., 2007). This paper attempts to fill this gap. The objectives of this discussion are fourfold: (1) to provide a better understanding of the concepts of offshoring and outsourcing business models, (2) to discuss relevant theoretical perspectives related to outsourcing, (3) to present a taxonomy of outsourcing strategies drawing on the extant literature, and (4) to discuss public policy implications. The remainder of the paper is arranged as follows: section one presents the background on the offshoring and outsourcing models. Section two presents theoretical perspectives on outsourcing. More specifically, the section discusses three theories: resource-based view (RBV), transaction cost economics (TCE), and resource dependence theory (RDT); section three presents a discussion of Kotabe and Zhao's (2002) taxonomy of sourcing strategies in the manufacturing sector, followed by the discussion of the taxonomy of outsourcing of services. Finally, the paper concludes with public policy implications.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Despite various problem areas listed above, outsourcing is an evolving strategy and if employed carefully can lead to long-term profitability not only for the firms, but has the potential to benefit both the home and host countries. Companies have increasingly started to take a global view, and emerging markets have the ability to provide complementarities in terms of much needed human capital, innovativeness, and natural resources, as well to hitherto untapped markets with large size and high growth rates. The availability of low-cost resources has the potential to dramatically improve an outsourcing company's performance. For instance, highly-trained information technology professionals in emerging economies, such as India and China, can not only save costs, but may also provide a fresh perspective, initiative, innovative and diverse ideas, and new sources of tacit knowledge and know-how that may not be available in home country markets alone. These knowledge workers, if properly managed and encouraged, can drive the company growth from bottom-up. Lastly, emerging markets with their vast size may act as excellent test beds for new technology and customer adoption of innovations. Many leading companies have realized that outsourcing to emerging economies has almost become a necessity in today's highly competitive global economy. This is evident from almost 800% growth of IBM employees in India over the last 5 years. IBM's Indian employees now constitute over 20% of its workforce worldwide. Accenture employs more people in India than in the US. Other companies and service organizations including universities such as Yale and Georgia Institute of Technology are entering into long-term agreements to provide higher education to India's already highly qualified workforce. In conclusion, outsourcing is considered to be an important activity in the firm's business value chain when products and services are produced effectively and economically by outside suppliers (Kotabe et al., 2008a and Kotabe et al., 2008b). Companies that are careful in selecting the right type of outsourcing strategy will benefit from outsourcing due to the sustainable competitive advantage that will be difficult to imitate. These companies, however, should be cautious in providing business and technological know-how to the partners in other countries. With careful assessment and selection of partners, proper communication, setting procedures and policies, and implementation and measurement, these strategies may prove to be beneficial to all stakeholders