تاثیر عوامل قراردادی و رابطه ای بر روی اثربخشی روابط تدارکات شخص ثالث
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|534||2011||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Volume 17, Issue 3, September 2011, Pages 167–175
Outsourcing has become popular in both management literature and practice, but few studies have examined the effects of two important and potentially complementary elements – contractual and relational elements – on the effectiveness of logistics outsourcing relationships. It is theorized that contract formality, the thoroughness of contract negotiations, trust and commitment increase the effectiveness of 3PL provider–client relationships. For empirical validation a survey was carried out in the 3PL industry among both 3PL providers and clients. Using PLS path modelling, we observed that for both LSPs and clients, contract formality, trust and commitment are all positively related to relationship effectiveness. The results for negotiation thoroughness are mixed. The model explains 59% (LSPs) and 60% (clients) of the variance in relationship effectiveness. It is concluded that both ‘hard’ contractual aspects and ‘soft’ relationship aspects are important for effective supply chain collaboration. Theoretical and managerial implications are provided.
Global supply chains are a source of competitive advantage (Manuj and Mentzer, 2008), and supply chain collaboration is a valuable approach for reaching world class operational performance (Vereecke and Muylle, 2006). Logistics outsourcing has attracted growing interest in recent years as managers consider whether it is in their best interest to perform activities in-house or let them perform by a logistics service provider (LSP) (Bolumole et al., 2007). LSPs are companies, which perform logistics services on behalf of others, either completely or only in part (Delfmann et al., 2002 and Krauth et al., 2005). Examples of such logistics services are inventory management, warehousing, procurement, transportation, systems administration, information systems, materials sub-assembly, contract manufacturing and import, and export assistance. According to Bagchi and Virum (1996, p. 93), a logistics alliance is “a long-term partnership arrangement between a shipper and a logistics vendor for providing a wide array of logistics services including transportation, warehousing, inventory control, distribution, and other value-added activities”. It is widely believed that collaboration among supply chain members will lead to competitive advantage for all (Mentzer et al., 2000). The idea behind collaboration is that one firm has insufficient capabilities and resources to successfully compete by itself. Because of increasingly demanding customers, firms need to perform better. Through collaboration, firms can combine their strengths, share risks and rewards, and achieve higher performance. However, in practice, few firms actually collaborate on a level that goes deep enough to achieve an effective and efficient supply chain (Min et al., 2005). “Supply chain collaboration seems to have great potential, but further investigation is needed to understand its practical value” (Min et al., 2005, p. 238). There have been many studies investigating success factors for third party logistics (3PL) partnerships (e.g., Van Laarhoven et al., 2000). In our study, we focus on two categories of success factors that have the potential to complement each other: ‘hard’ contractual factors and ‘soft’ relational factors (Poppo and Zenger, 2002). In regard to contractual factors, it is important to design an optimal contract, which is acceptable to both the client and the LSP and, at the same time, induces the LSP to truthfully reveal his capability (Lim, 2000). According to Selviaridis and Spring (2007, p. 140), empirical research should be directed towards contractual practices: “There is a need to examine (empirically) whether contracts are important in terms of relationship management or represent only part of the business deal and the client-3PL provider relationship”. Contracting agreements are perceived to be central to the creation of effective logistics outsourcing relationships (Boyson et al., 1999). In regard to relational factors, a growing number of LSPs try to become of strategic importance in their clients' supply chains. Because of mergers and acquisitions and horizontal alliances with other LSPs, LSPs have been able to extend their scale and scope of operations, which has resulted in the offering of sophisticated logistics solutions, sometimes even on a global scale (Selviaridis and Spring, 2007). Those LSPs aim for long-term relationships built on trust and commitment (Morgan and Hunt, 1994). Successful collaboration between LSPs and clients is thought to yield significant benefits, such as inventory reduction, better quality, improved delivery, reduced costs, shorter lead-times, and higher flexibility (Min et al., 2005 and Vereecke and Muylle, 2006).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study focused on the impact of both contractual and relational aspects on the effectiveness of LSP–client relationships. Based on the extant literature a conceptual model was developed containing four hypotheses. Using PLS path modelling, we tested this model with two samples: LSPs and clients. For both groups, three out of four hypotheses were supported. The results of the research provide valuable insights into the effects of both contractual and relational elements in 3PL–client relationships for both LSPs and clients. Existing studies have mainly focused on the impact of either contractual or relational elements on relationship success, with the majority of the studies focusing on the relational elements. Our study shows that contractual elements should not be neglected in building an effective working relationship. Both ‘hard’ contractual aspects and ‘soft’ relationship aspects are shown to influence relationship effectiveness. In addition, by empirically testing a model strongly grounded in theory, we contribute to the theoretical basis of 3PL literature (Selviaridis and Spring, 2007). Finally, by considering both sides of the relationship, we provide insights into the differences and similarities in the ways both groups view their relationships with the other party. In regard to the differences, separate analyses of the measurement models for LSPs and clients revealed that we need to make slight differences in those measurement models to correctly analyse the effects of contractual and relational elements on relationships effectiveness for both groups. Although the measurement models were slightly different, the pattern of outcomes was remarkably similar. Moreover, the means of contract formality, trust, and relationship effectiveness do not differ between the groups. In that regard, they have similar views of their relationships with the other party, which is in contradiction to findings of Golicic (2007). She found that shippers reported significantly higher levels of trust than carriers.