دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 5660
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله

ارزیابی زیست محیطی استراتژیک و توسعه آن در چین

عنوان انگلیسی
Strategic Environmental Assessment and its development in China
کد مقاله سال انتشار تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی
5660 2002 9 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید
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شرح تعرفه ترجمه زمان تحویل جمع هزینه
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ترجمه تخصصی - سرعت فوری هر کلمه 24 تومان 3 روز بعد از پرداخت 77,664 تومان
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منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Volume 22, Issue 2, March 2002, Pages 101–109

ترجمه کلمات کلیدی
ارزیابی زیست محیطی استراتژیک - فشار توسعه - استراتژی انرژی منطقه ای - سیاست صنعت خودرو - برنامه ریزی منطقه ساحلی - جلوگیری از آلودگی هوا و قانون کنترل - توسعه پایدار محیط زیست - مشارکت عمومی
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی
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چکیده انگلیسی

Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a frontier subject in the field of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). This article describes the current situation of SEA in China, discusses major problems with SEA, and then recommends improvements in the system. In the past two decades, but especially in recent years, the inherent limitations of conventional project EIA have come to light. Thus, to pursue a broader course of sustainable development, the Chinese government has attached more and more importance to SEA. Some legislation has been enacted, and some research has been conducted on the topic in China, but most of the research has been focused on the concept, theory, and method of SEA. Comprehensive application of SEA in China has yet to occur, and only a limited number of case studies are available. SEA as applied today in China is confronted with a host of methodological and procedural limitations. Moreover, public participation is often extremely limited, because procedures restrict public participation. Policies and strategies are kept secret from the public. We believe SEA can be improved by the following recommendations: introduction of procedures to ensure the appropriate level of SEA be conducted for strategic proposals, development of strategic evaluation tools and techniques, encouragement of public participation, organization of educational programs, and implementation of SEA “experiments.”

مقدمه انگلیسی

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for policies, plans, and programs (PPP)—also known as Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)—is not legally required in China at present, nor has the government published any guidelines for SEA. However, considerable work has developed in SEA since 1995, and SEAs are increasingly being carried out in practice. These activities are taking place partly in response to the inherent limitations of conventional project EIA, and partly because the government has recognized the significance that SEA is a useful and effective tool for sustainable development. Since the implementation of economic reform and the opening up to the outside world, the Chinese economy has grown quickly and steadily. Per capita GDP in 2000 exceeded US$800, and average annual GDP growth for 1979–1998 was 9.7%. But with years of development and a population of 1.297 billion, land resources are becoming more and more scarce; resource consumption and its pressure on the environment are rising. Meeting the needs of its people and the development of the economy on the one hand, while protecting and conserving the fragile environment and limited natural resources on the other, is becoming more difficult. Taking into account social, economic, and environmental considerations at the earliest appropriate stage of decision-making is an essential component of sustainable development. SEA supports this process by providing appropriate environmental information. Therefore, SEA is required to assist the government in the formulation of future development strategies (including PPP).

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

SEA is not legally required in China presently. At the same time, SEA is increasingly seen as a way to counter limitations of project EIA and as a tool for public participation and improved transparency decision-making.

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نسخه انگلیسی مقاله همین الان قابل دانلود است.

هزینه ترجمه مقاله بر اساس تعداد کلمات مقاله انگلیسی محاسبه می شود.

این مقاله شامل 3236 کلمه می باشد.

هزینه ترجمه مقاله توسط مترجمان با تجربه، طبق جدول زیر محاسبه می شود:

شرح تعرفه ترجمه زمان تحویل جمع هزینه
ترجمه تخصصی - سرعت عادی هر کلمه 12 تومان 6 روز بعد از پرداخت 38,832 تومان
ترجمه تخصصی - سرعت فوری هر کلمه 24 تومان 3 روز بعد از پرداخت 77,664 تومان
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.