جنبه های زیست محیطی استفاده از انرژی زمین گرمایی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|57941||2003||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Geothermics, Volume 32, Issues 4–6, August–December 2003, Pages 451–461
Geothermal energy is a clean and sustainable energy source, but its development still has some impact on the environment. The positive and negative aspects of this environmental impact have to be considered prior to any decision to develop a geothermal field, as well as possible mitigation measures. The main environmental effects of geothermal development are related to surface disturbances, the physical effects of fluid withdrawal, heat effects and discharge of chemicals. All these factors will affect the biological environment as well. As with all industrial activities, there are also some social and economic effects. In Iceland an enforcement program was launched in the early 1990s to study the environmental impact of developing geothermal resources. Work began on tackling the environmental issues relative to the high-temperature geothermal fields under development in Iceland. Research was conducted on microearthquake activity in geothermal areas and a methodology developed for mapping steam caps. The foundations were laid of networks for monitoring land elevation and gravity changes. Baseline values were defined for the concentrations of mercury and sulfur gases. Groundwater monitoring studies were enforced. Atmospheric dispersion and reaction of geothermally-emitted sulfur gases and mercury were studied. Aerial thermographic survey methods were refined and tested and their capacity to detect and map changes in surface manifestations with time was demonstrated. To further the use of geothermal energy worldwide the International Energy Association set up a Geothermal Implement Agreement (GIA) in 1997; its environmental Annex has been actively implemented, with several projects still under way.