دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 57955
عنوان فارسی مقاله

وضعیت انرژی زمین گرمایی در میان منابع انرژی در جهان

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
57955 2003 10 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.
عنوان انگلیسی
Status of geothermal energy amongst the world's energy sources
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Geothermics, Volume 32, Issues 4–6, August–December 2003, Pages 379–388

کلمات کلیدی
انرژی زمین گرمایی؛ برق؛ استفاده مستقیم - انرژی های تجدید پذیر؛ قیمت انرژی
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله وضعیت انرژی زمین گرمایی در میان منابع انرژی در جهان

چکیده انگلیسی

The world primary energy consumption is about 400 EJ/year, mostly provided by fossil fuels (80%). The renewables collectively provide 14% of the primary energy, in the form of traditional biomass (10%), large (>10 MW) hydropower stations (2%), and the “new renewables” (2%). Nuclear energy provides 6%. The World Energy Council expects the world primary energy consumption to have grown by 50–275% in 2050, depending on different scenarios. The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20–40% of the primary energy in 2050 and 30–80% in 2100. The technical potential of the renewables is estimated at 7600 EJ/year, and thus certainly sufficiently large to meet future world energy requirements. Of the total electricity production from renewables of 2826 TWh in 1998, 92% came from hydropower, 5.5% from biomass, 1.6% from geothermal and 0.6% from wind. Solar electricity contributed 0.05% and tidal 0.02%. The electricity cost is 2–10 US¢/kWh for geothermal and hydro, 5–13 US¢/kWh for wind, 5–15 US¢/kWh for biomass, 25–125 US¢/kWh for solar photovoltaic and 12–18 US¢/kWh for solar thermal electricity. Biomass constitutes 93% of the total direct heat production from renewables, geothermal 5%, and solar heating 2%. Heat production from renewables is commercially competitive with conventional energy sources. Direct heat from biomass costs 1–5 US¢/kWh, geothermal 0.5–5 US¢/kWh, and solar heating 3–20 US¢/kWh.

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