اثرات بازار نیروی کار برون سپاری بین المللی : مسائل سنجش
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|586||2009||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8640 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Review of Economics & Finance, Volume 18, Issue 4, October 2009, Pages 611–623
As regards labor market effects of International Outsourcing, empirical results differ strongly. This is not only due to different data, the use of different indices adds to the puzzle. This paper investigates the importance of measurement differences for analyzing labor market effects of International Outsourcing. To this end, several indices are compared with respect to their design, their descriptive properties, their quality in proxying International Outsourcing activities, and their econometrical performance. As the results show, International Outsourcing effects depend strongly on measurement differences and the level of industry aggregation. Considering these results, different empirical findings can be reconciled.
Since International Outsourcing moved into the focus of political and social discussion, it has been blamed to reduce relative demand for low skilled labor. Thus, beside skill-biased technological change, International Outsourcing is seen as one main culprit for labor market disruptions in industrialized countries. While outsourcing is defined as the procurement of inputs from an external supplier, it is the international component, namely the use of a production fragment produced abroad, that achieves most attention in public discussion as well as in economic research. Even if International Outsourcing is already seen as a world-wide phenomenon, Kierzkowski (2005, p. 235) correctly mentions that “it is only the beginning of what seems an inexorable process”. In order to investigate labor market effects of International Outsourcing, a wide area of empirical research emerged.1 Since it is not possible to directly observe International Outsourcing on an aggregated macro level, there is a need to proxy it. Thus, several indices were developed and a few of them are very common in use. Within a descriptive analysis, Campa and Goldberg (1997) e.g. measure International Outsourcing using an index called vertical specialization. They show for the period 1974–1993, that International Outsourcing increased strongly in the US, Canada and the UK, but not in Japan. Hummels, Ishii, and Yi (2001) measure International Outsourcing as imported inputs used to produce products that are afterward exported. Based on OECD input-output tables they document several key aspects of International Outsourcing for various countries. Yeats (2001) uses the measure of imported inputs in total imports and mentions for a variety of countries that International Outsourcing is already at a quite high level.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The results of empirical contributions investigating labor market effects of International Outsourcing differ strongly. While some of them significantly support the importance of International Outsourcing to explain changes on the labor market, others yield only insignificant effects. The different results depend on different data situations, however, the use of different indices to proxy International Outsourcing activities adds to the puzzle. This paper examines the importance of measurement differences for empirical contributions investigating International Outsourcing effects. As it turns out, measurement differences may be the reason for the different empirical results. An aggregation bias emerges showing that the performance of different indices strongly depends on the level of industry aggregation. While the IITM index achieves significant results for more aggregated industry levels, the VS index supports significant effects of International Outsourcing within more disaggregated industry levels. The IIGO index, by contrast, shows significant effects for aggregated as well as disaggregated industry levels, while the IITI index confirms the importance of International Outsourcing for affecting the wage differential in the manufacturing industry. While the IITI, the IIGO, and the VS index are very capable of capturing International Outsourcing activities, difficulties with respect to the theoretical design arises for the IITM index. Thus, the IITM also shows a lower quality in emphasizing intrinsic International Outsourcing activities. On the other hand, as IITM measures the fraction of International Outsourcing in general trade flows, the index can be of high interest when examining this special issue.