بازاریابان چه چیزهایی باید در مورد گواهینامه ISO 9000 بدانند خلاصه، به روز رسانی و یکپارچه کردن آن با بازاریابی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|5917||2002||9 صفحه PDF||19 صفحه WORD|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 31, Issue 8, 1 November 2002, Pages 695–703
پیشینه و استاندارهای ISO 9000
انتقادهایی بر صدور گواهی ISO 9000
هزینه های صدور گواهی ISO
سودهای حاصل از صدور گواهی ISO 9000
یکپارچه سازی ثبت ISO 9000 و بازاریابی
بحث و نتیجه گیری
The ISO certification process has been in existence for 14 years. During that time, hundreds of thousands of suppliers of mainly industrial products and services have become ISO 9000 registered. However, the adoption rate of ISO 9000 certifications in US industry has lagged that of other developed countries. This is now changing; the number of new ISO 9000 certifications being obtained annually in the US is currently higher than most other countries in the world. Concurrently, the ISO 9000 certification series recently underwent a major revision, and much has been learned about the ISO 9000 certification process over the last 14 years. Therefore, industrial marketers who have taken a wait and see approach or have decided that the process is irrelevant to their businesses may need to reconsider this decision. To assist in this process, this article reviews the former and current ISO 9000 certification process, discusses the criticisms of the program, provides information regarding costs and benefits of certification, and offers suggestions for effectively integrating certification with the marketing program.
ISO 9000 originated in 1987 with a bulletin from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Its purpose was to provide a series of international standards dealing with quality systems that could be used for external quality assurance purposes. Companies interested in demonstrating that their procedures met international quality standards could seek ISO 9000 certification by hiring a registration (certification) organization, accredited by ISO, to perform a quality system audit and grant ISO 9000 certification. Currently, the American National Standards Institute administers this procedure in the United States where ISO 9000 registration has been sought and obtained by thousands of US industrial suppliers. Now the ISO 9000 standards have been revised. New standards were officially published on December 15, 2000 and despite criticisms of the process, there is little sign of abatement of interest in ISO 9000 certification. Instead, the number of ISO 9000 registrations is increasing. By the end of 1999 there were 343,643 certifications in 150 countries, a 26.4% increase over the previous year. The second greatest number of new registrations by the end of 1999 was in the US (Australia was first) where 8067 new ISO 9000 certificates were issued, a 32.3% increase from the previous year. Further, the number of new US registrations has increased annually every year over the previous 5 years. Thus by the end of 1999, there were 33,054 ISO 9000 certificates issued to businesses in the US . However, even though the growth in ISO 9000 certifications in the US continues, the total number of US registrations trails that of other regions. In fact, the US represents only 9.6% of companies registered worldwide, and total North American (Canada, Mexico, and the US) registrations represent only 13.1% of worldwide registrations. In comparison, European registrations represent more than 55% of the worldwide total, those in the Far East region represent about 16%, and the number of certifications in these regions is still increasing . If US registrations continue to increase at the current rate, thousands more US suppliers will be considering joining the ranks of those already ISO 9000 certified. Further, since the overwhelming majority of certifications are issued to suppliers of business and industrial products and services, the industrial sector of the economy is where most of the increase will occur. As a result, it is timely to revisit the ISO 9000 certification process. In doing so, this article will briefly review the ISO 9000 registration process and recent changes, review the criticisms of the process, and identify the costs and benefits of ISO 9000 certification. Further, to assist industrial marketers who may already have received ISO 9000 certification as well as those who may be considering doing so, this article will provide suggestions for effectively integrating ISO 9000 certification into the marketing program while avoiding marketing errors that may violate ISO guidelines.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
It has been 14 years since the ISO 9000 standards were introduced, and still the annual increase in ISO 9000 registrations remains high as thousands of companies worldwide seek certification of their quality systems. During much of this time however, US registrations have trailed those of other countries due to questions about whether the benefits of ISO 9000 registration were sufficient to offset the costs and sheer complexity of becoming certified. Now, in light of recent findings that indicate that the process does offer worthwhile payoffs, many US companies that have avoided certification are reconsidering that decision. The result is that the number of new US certifications currently exceeds that of most other countries. Further, the ISO 9000 standards were significantly changed in December 2000, and many of the criticisms of the original standards were addressed. Therefore, industrial marketers who have avoided ISO certification in the past may wish to reconsider that decision. For those that determine that ISO 9000 registration may be feasible and worthwhile, careful analysis is needed prior to seeking ISO 9000 certification. It is important early on to determine the role that ISO 9000 plays in the relevant industry and markets. If this analysis reveals that ISO 9000 certification is necessary to support competitive and marketing objectives, then the company should undertake the process, but it should be undertaken with a full realization of the cost and time expenditures required for successful implementation. Also important in this process is providing for needed executive involvement and planning for how ISO 9000, once achieved, will be integrated into the company's marketing program. Attention to these steps is critical in assuring that the company and its customers obtain the maximum benefits of the program. Still, ISO 9000 registration is not appropriate for all suppliers. Some industries have adopted other quality standards that serve them well. Others serve limited markets where the benefits would not justify the costs, and others lack the internal structure or financial resources necessary to support such a system. In these cases, the ISO model could still serve a useful purpose as a benchmark to assess the adequacy of quality programs. This should contribute to the systematic improvement of overall company quality and profit.