ایزو 9000/1994، ایزو 9001/2000 و TQM:بازبینی بحث عملکرد
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|5968||2009||17 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||11160 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Operations Management, Volume 27, Issue 6, December 2009, Pages 495–511
The debate about the impact of ISO 9000/1994 on performance has been waging since its inception. While there is a general agreement regarding the positive impact of TQM on performance, there has been less agreement among the academics about the impact of ISO 9000/1994. Perhaps in response to such debate, the new ISO 9001/2000 has appeared purporting to be more in line with the TQM philosophy. As of now, how this 2000 version actually affects performance is yet to be explored. In this study, we compare the implementation of ISO 9000/1994 and ISO 9001/2000 as representing two different efforts to implement quality management practices. We evaluate its impact on company performance with a sample of 713 Spanish industrial companies. We also examine if the 2000 version of ISO is taking us closer to the implementation of TQM. Further, we depart from the past studies methodologically by considering performance as a formative construct rather than a reflective construct. Based on the mean and covariance structural (MACS) analyses, we conclude that ISO 9001/2000 certified companies do not perform noticeably better than ISO 9000/1994 or non-certified companies. However, we find that ISO 9001/2000 certified companies apply TQM at a higher level than ISO 9000/1994 certified companies, but whether they actually perform better is less clear.
ISO 9000 series of standards first emerged in 1987 as the torch-bearer of the standards for doing business in Europe. According to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), at the end of 2006 there were 897,866 certified companies in the world (www.iso.org). With a growing annual rate of 20% for the period, 1995–2006, the number of ISO certified companies has been growing at a rate far higher than the economic growth. The academia has certainly taken notice of this phenomenon. As of late 2008, the ABI/INFORM database alone contains 2484 references that include ISO 9000 in their title or abstract. The bulk of these papers address managerial issues surrounding the ISO standard and its effects on company performance. The Journal of Operations Management has published three seminal articles on the impact of ISO 9000 on company performance. The first paper appeared in 1997 (Terziovski et al., 1997) as one of the more rigorous studies analyzing this subject. In this paper, Terziovski et al. found that ISO 9000 had little or no impact on company performance. The authors used TQM as a moderating factor for the ISO–performance relationship. The second paper came in 2005 (Naveh and Marcus, 2005) addressing the same issue. They first reported ongoing debate regarding the effects of ISO standards on company performance. They then concluded that the way a company implements the standard is what introduces variations that distinguish one company from others in operating performance. The better a company uses the standard in daily practice and as a catalyst for change, the greater the operating performance from ISO implementation. The third paper is authored by Benner and Veloso (2008). They again highlight the existing debate between ISO 9000 and firm performance. They proposed a possible explanation for the previous contrasting results by differentiating the early adopters from late adopters. Financial performance advantages enjoyed by early adopters can disappear for the late adopters as more firms adopt and achieve similar generic improvements. Clearly, the three articles have shed light on the question of the ISO's impact on company performance. However, all of them were built on the 1994 version of the standard. The study by Terziovski et al. (1997) appeared long before the 2000 version was instituted. Also, looking at the year of first submission (2002), the study by Naveh and Marcus (2005) also used data collected under the old ISO standards. The third and very recent paper (Benner and Veloso, 2008) uses data from 1988 to 1997. Presently, no more certification is being offered under the old version, ISO 9000/1994; the newest version of the ISO standard, ISO 9001/2000 (approved in December 2000) has now become compulsory for all applicants since the end of 2003. A key departure reflected in the new ISO standard is a more extensive incorporation of TQM philosophy. Previously, ISO had been criticized for being incomplete in how it incorporated TQM practices into its requirements (Gotzamani and Tsiotras, 2001, Lee et al., 1999, Reimann and Hertz, 1996 and Zhu and Scheuermann, 1999). The 2000 version is purported to be much more complete in its treatment of TQM; for instance, Biazzo and Bernardi (2003) observed that the changes that underlie the 2000 version have a much closer association with TQM principles compared to the 1994 version. The main objective of this research is to extend the performance debate using the 2000 version of ISO. We do so by considering performance as a formative construct rather than a reflective construct (see Coltman et al. (2008))—all three papers we cite above (Terziovski et al., 1997, Naveh and Marcus, 2005 and Benner and Veloso, 2008) used performance as a reflective construct. We examine if the incorporation of TQM concepts in the 2000 version is truly aligned with the TQM measures previously accepted in the academic literature. More explicitly, we pose three conceptual questions and one methodological question: 1. Has the 2000 version of the standard more impact on performance compared to the old one? 2. Are ISO 9001/2000 companies aligned more with TQM compared to ISO 9000/1994 companies? 3. Do the soft dimensions of TQM mark the primary improvement in ISO 9001/2000 from its earlier version of ISO 9000/1994? 4. Would framing performance as a formative construct contradict the results of earlier studies in any way that framed it as a reflective construct?
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Our results extend the debate involving the ISO 9000's impact on company performance. Previous studies published in JOM analyzed the effect of ISO 9000/1994 in different performance variables. However, a new version of the standard was born in 2000 with apparent characteristics that would bring companies nearer to a TQM system—the latest version of the standard, the ISO 9001/2008, has not implied any important change in its philosophy. Scholars (Lee et al., 1999 and Zhu and Scheuermann, 1999) have argued that TQM offers a much more complete quality management system with clear implications for benefits, whereas the previous version of ISO 9000 reflects a mere quality assurance system. If this is true, companies that adopted the ISO 9001/2000 version of the standard should lead companies to a higher level of TQM practices and, consequently, better performance. Our hypotheses were developed along the lines of such reasoning. However, our empirical analyses do not corroborate exactly what was initially expected. Firstly, what we found was that companies certified by the 1994 and the 2000 version of the standard showed barely noticeable differences in the performance dimensions. ISO 9001/2000 certified companies had slightly better scores on unit product costs, design quality and customer's satisfaction, but these differences could not be considered significant. These differences were also small in comparison with non-ISO companies. In 2006, JOM published a special issue encouraging replication research underlying OM models and theories (volume 24, 2006). In that issue, Kaynak and Hartley (2008) affirmed that replication implies that results can be generalized with confidence, building the foundation for theory. Many previous studies have empirically analyzed the impact of ISO 9000 implementation on the company performance. At the moment, there is still lack of agreement about its benefits. In this regard, this paper attempted to shed light on this issue and push it a little further. Our results in essence support the study of Terziovski et al. (1997) since it does not find significant differences between certified and non-certified firms. Terziovski et al. posited in their conclusion that ISO 9000 could contribute to organizational performance if a climate of change was created, which was not happening at the time of their study. This climate of change was subsequently examined in Naveh and Marcus (2005). They found in their longitudinal study that, just as Terziovski et al. predicted, the climate of change was an important moderating variable in the ISO 9000 and performance relationship. Companies that implemented the standard as a catalyst for change would get the most from it. Other studies have also confirmed motivation as a moderating variable (Martínez-Costa et al., 2008). The version of the standard created in 2000 introduced a few key aspects of quality largely neglected in the previous version such as continuous improvement or customer orientation. These two aspects are of great importance, and without them, as was the case under the 1994 version, the companies would be limited to implement quality management at a superficial level. Companies certified under the 2000 version are motivated to explicitly define ways to continuously improve quality and have the customer satisfied. The next logical question then becomes: is the 2000 version being implemented as a catalyst for change? The answer based on our results is not encouraging. Companies that implemented the 2000 version do not show significantly large improvements compared with companies with the 1994 version or non-certified ones. Benner and Veloso (2008) posited that, with regard to the 1994 version of the standard, the early adopter might have gained some benefits from the implementation. Similarly, we tried to take into account that the ISO 9001/2000 companies analyzed in our sample were the first ones in implementing the 2000 version. However, we are not able to support such early adopter argument based on our results. We suspect that the 1994 version might have developed an “aura” about it so that it was believed to be useful only for making some sales or as a requisite condition for gaining access to potential customers. If this aura has preceded the 2000 version, then it seems that the 2000 version does not lead to real changes in companies certified under the 2000 version. An important contribution of our paper is that we empirically studied if the changes in the standard, which are more in line with the TQM philosophy, were in fact leading companies to the higher levels in the TQM dimensions. We had stated that the new ISO 9001/2000 should present higher levels in TQM and, particularly in those considered as “soft dimensions” by previous literature, mainly, leadership and management commitment, continuous improvement, customer management, and human resource management. Our findings were that ISO 9001/2000 certified companies had better scores on suppliers, design, process management and leadership. As it can be seen, from the improvements of the soft variables included in the new standard identified in the literature review only leadership has slightly improved. The other two dimensions in which our results showed differences are considered of a technical nature or “hard dimensions” in the literature. Our results show that ISO 9001/2000 certified companies apply TQM at a higher level than ISO 9000/1994 certified companies. However, the superiority of the 2000 version is not clearly manifested in performance. Possible reasons are, firstly, that previous literature in the field has identified that the TQM dimensions that most affect performance are the “soft ones”. If the 2000 version of the standard does not affect those dimensions significantly, then performance will not improve significantly. Secondly, it is important to note that, the data collection for the present study occurred only after a few years of the implementation of the 2000 version. Therefore, a longitudinal study would be necessary to make a definitive statement about the impact of this standard on TQM dimensions and company performance. Recommendations to managers from our analyses regarding this 2000 version of the standard are in line with the previous studies published in JOM that analyzed the 1994 version of ISO 9000. Whatever its version is, ISO standard is not a guarantee of quality or better performance. There are practical implications of this realization involving the 1994 and 2000 versions of ISO. One, the selection of suppliers or business partnership should not depend solely on the possession of an ISO 9001 certification. Two, when a company wants to improve its quality management system, the application in isolation of the ISO 9001 model is not a secure way of getting this improvement. Our study has limitations. The variability of the effect size estimates (e.g. confidence interval are not narrow) does not allow us to draw clearer conclusions with respect to the importance of the differences. Future studies should use larger samples to reduce such variability. Nevertheless, an important contribution of our research is providing effect sizes, so that other researchers could replicate our findings and conduct a meta-analysis. We consider meta-analysis a highly desirable approach in our field of operations management, so that we could continue to expand and build empirically based theories and would know about the empirical distribution of the effects we find. Therefore, our conclusions could be revisited and reinforced or rebuffed after the analysis of several replications in other test situations (Hitchcock, 2002).