دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 5991
عنوان فارسی مقاله

صدور گواهینامه ISO 14001 از پروسه ماشین

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
5991 2000 8 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
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عنوان انگلیسی
The ISO 14001 certification of a machine-process
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 8, Issue 1, February 2000, Pages 61–68

کلمات کلیدی
— - 14001 ماشین فرایند - سیستم مدیریت محیط زیست - صدور گواهینامه 14001 - حسابرسی محیط زیست
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چکیده انگلیسی

Some process machines in industrial manufacturing can be defined machine-process: their operations can be analysed by several points of view independently from the larger manufacturing process where they are included. For a machine-process, an Ems—Environmental management system can be set up and the ISO 14001 certification reached in an ‘earlier application’ way, with the involvement of both supplier/manufacturer and client/user. The ‘earlier certification’ of machine-processes adds new contents to the product, linked to the environment, helping the market of ‘clean technologies’, and fosters the diffusion of ISO 14001 certification among supplying/manufacturing companies and clients/users whose entire process is not yet certified. A case study is presented that has been experienced in Italy. The ‘offer and design’ phase of a port mobile shiploader is completely developed by following the ‘earlier application’ scheme for ISO 14001 certification of a machine process—introduced and explained in the paper. Achieved results are shown, and the perspective of a complete application of the scheme to the following ‘detailed design and assembly’ and ‘operations’ phases of the same machine are outlined. The feasibility of such a new application of ISO 14000 standards is proved, together with its advantages, while the readiness of the market for the new sector of earlier certification of machine-processes is highlighted.

مقدمه انگلیسی

In the analysis of industrial processes, a single machine often realises an entire and well-defined part of a manufacturing cycle. This machine is what we call a ‘machine-process’. It can be seen, from the management point of view, as a whole ‘small’ industry. All the existing environmental and quality standards, as well as procedures for optimising management systems can be applied to the machine-process. Even when it is part of a larger manufacturing flow. And, if needed, independently from this one. A machine-process can be run following its own procedures, and educating, training and organising its own specialised personnel. The machine-process has input materials and output materials and waste, like a ‘classical’ entire production process. For the financial analysis, its costs and revenues can be taken into account, and its economical performance evaluated.New ideas and social needs have driven for the past 20 years to the setting up of Ems for industrial operations. This trend has been continuously increasing in importance. The ISO 14000 series of environmental standards provide a widely recognised set of references for the development of Ems in industry (the ISO 14001 certifications in the world raised to 11.421 up to the 1 September 1999 [7]). There are several standards in the 14000 series, ready to be applied by companies for developing an Ems: ISO 14001, ISO 14004, ISO 14010, ISO 14011, ISO 14012, ISO 14013/15. The ISO 14001 is the key standard: Environmental management systems—specifications with guidance for use; it specifies the requirements and sets out the main elements of an Ems structure, and is the only standard of the series to be used for certification. ISO 14004 provides guidance for the implementation of Ems principles, systems and supporting techniques. ISO 14010 and 14011 address general principles for environmental auditing and audit procedures respectively, and ISO 14012 sets out qualification criteria for environmental auditors. ISO 14013/15 provide guidelines for audit programmes, reviews and assessments. Those standards are currently applied to organisations, as well as units/departments. The organisation (or unit/department) needs to be analysed from the environmental point of view and several steps are made—following the ISO 14001 requests—to reach a complete Ems implementation, and to reach environmental certification [6]. The standards [2] require or recommend the clear identification of: 1. Environmental review (ISO 14001 annex A and ISO 14004, 4.1.3); 2. Environmental policy (ISO 14001, 4.2); 3. Environmental aspects (ISO 14001, 4.3) 4. Environmental management system (ISO 14001, 4.1 and ISO 14004); 5. Application (ISO 14001, 4.4); 6. Control (ISO 14001, 4.5); 7. Management review (ISO 14001, 4.6). Once the mentioned steps1 have been made, the validation and registration can be requested. And the process certified through an audit.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

The possibility of applying ISO 14000 standards and getting ISO 14001 ‘earlier certification’ of process-machines—although currently not recognised—is real and effective. Two possible ways for earlier application of ISO 14001 standard to process-machines are outlined in the paper: the ‘bridge’ scheme and the ‘double-step’ scheme. Both of them promote a higher interaction between manufacturer/supplier and client/user, by also introduce principles from DfE—Design for the environment standard. The challenging opportunity of getting the environmental certification with an ‘earlier application’ scheme shows its effectiveness in the presented case study of a port shiploader. The benefits for the market of ‘clean technologies’ and for the diffusion of environmental certification—also among companies that are still afraid of starting with a unit/company-wide application—are obtained by fulfilling normal offer, design, installation and test procedures.

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