جایگزین های تجزیه و تحلیل در لجستیک معکوس برای کامپیوترهایی که پایان عمرشان فرا رسیده : ANP (فرایند تحلیل شبکه ای) و رویکرد کارت امتیازی متوازن
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6011||2005||30 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||13838 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Computers & Industrial Engineering, Volume 48, Issue 2, March 2005, Pages 327–356
Activities in reverse logistics activities are extensively practiced by computer hardware industries. One of the important problems faced by the top management in the computer hardware industries is the evaluation of various alternatives for end-of-life (EOL) computers. Analytic network process (ANP) based decision model presented in this paper structures the problem related to options in reverse logistics for EOL computers in a hierarchical form and links the determinants, dimensions, and enablers of the reverse logistics with alternatives available to the decision maker. In the proposed model, the dimensions of reverse logistics for the EOL computers have been taken from four perspectives derived from balanced scorecard approach, viz. customer, internal business, innovation and learning, and finance. The proposed approach, therefore, links the financial and non-financial, tangible and intangible, internal and external factors, thus providing a holistic framework for the selection of an alternative for the reverse logistics operations for EOL computers. Many criteria, sub-criteria, determinants, etc. for the selection of reverse logistics options are interrelated. The ability of ANP to consider interdependencies among and between levels of decision attributes makes it an attractive multi-criteria decision-making tool. Thus, a combination of balanced scorecard and ANP-based approach proposed in this paper provides a more realistic and accurate representation of the problem for conducting reverse logistics operations for EOL computers.
It has been estimated that about 60 million computers enter the market every year in the USA and over 12 million computers are disposed of every year. Out of these only about 10% are remanufactured or recycled (Platt & Hyde, 1997). The remaining may lead to enormous amount of e-waste to be generated in a few years: 4 billion pounds of plastic, 1 billion pounds of lead, 1.9 million pounds of cadmium, 1.2 million pounds of chromium, 400,000 lbs of mercury, etc. (Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, 2002). The National Safety Council in a report ranks computers as the nation's fastest-growing category of solid waste by the Environmental Protection Agency (Hamilton, 2001). By 2004, there would be more than 315 million systems ready for disposal as opposed to 21 million obsolete systems in 1998 (Bertagnoli, 2000). According to another estimate, about 500 million computers will be rendered obsolete by 2007 in the USA alone (Hamilton, 2001). With the obsolescence rates on the rise (Blumberg, 1999) an important question that remains to be answered is what can be done to these EOL computers both from economical and environmental point of view. Due to shortening of product life cycles, for products like consumer electronics, the recovery of value from these consumer goods, after use, is becoming a necessity (Hillegersberg, Zuidwijk, van Nunen, & van Eijk, 2001). Several alternatives exist for disposing these EOL computers. Some of the methods for handling the EOL products include temporary storage, recycling the product, disposing of the product via landfills, etc. (Jacoby, Berning, & Diettvorst, 1977). EPA's Municipal Solid Waste FactBook reports that 29 states in USA have 10 years or more of landfill capacities remaining, 15 states have between 5 and 10 years of landfill capacity remaining, and six states have less than 5 years of landfill capacity remaining (Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 1998). But landfill usage may be a short-term solution to the problem as for example, states like Massachusetts, Minnesota and Wisconsin have either banned or are considering banning the dumping of the computer-related equipment in their landfills (Stough & Benson, 2000). The German Packaging Ordinance of 1991 mandate that industries organize the reclamation of reusable packaging waste, while local authorities continue to handle the collection and disposal of the remaining waste. In Taiwan, proper disposition of computers and electrical home appliances at their EOL phase has been strongly urged by the general public because of the scarcity of landfill space and the hazardous materials contained in these appliances (Shih, 2001). If offsetting of the increasing demand of landfills is to be done, enhanced efforts for recycling are needed, which directly requires the reverse logistics activities (Barnes, 1982). Reverse logistics provide many opportunities to reuse and create value out of this nearly omnipresent asset (Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Industries have started to realize that the reverse logistics can be used to gain competitive advantage (Marien, 1998). An evaluation framework, which incorporates determinants and dimensions of reverse logistics, would be useful in configuring the post-activities associated with the EOL computers. One of the prime issues in this context is the evaluation of the various alternatives faced by computer companies, which seek to undertake reverse logistics activities for the EOL computers. One such approach, with an application of a systemic analysis technique is presented in this paper. This technique evaluates the various dimensions of reverse logistics through an analytic hierarchy network model. There are a number of variables affecting the reverse logistics, some of these are interdependent among each other. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) is one of the analytical tools, which can be used to handle a multi-criteria decision-making problem (Saaty, 1980). However, a shortfall of AHP is that it lacks in considering interdependencies, if any, among the selection criteria. Analytic Network Process (ANP) is a similar technique, but can capture the interdependencies between the criteria under consideration, hence allowing for a more systemic analysis. It can allow inclusion of criteria, both tangible and intangible (difficult to quantify), which has some bearing on making the best decision (Saaty, 1996). Further, many of these factors have some level of interdependency among them, thus making ANP modeling better fit for the problem under study. The ANP model presented in this paper structures the problem related to selection of an alternative for the reverse logistics option for EOL computers in a hierarchical form and links the determinants, dimensions, and enablers of reverse logistics with different alternatives. One of the important issues for any strategic planning would be how the organization should prioritize the determinants and what policy elements or initiatives impact them (Wheelwright, 1978). The balanced scorecard is a performance measurement system that allows managers to look at the business from four divergent important perspectives: customer, internal business, innovation and learning, and finance (Kaplan & Norton, 1992). Brewer and Speh (2000) had used the concept of balanced scorecard to measure the supply chain performance. In the proposed ANP model, the dimensions of the reverse logistics for the EOL computers have been taken from the four perspectives of the balanced scorecard, thus balancing as well as linking the financial and non-financial, tangible and intangible, internal and external factors. Therefore, the proposed framework provides a holistic approach to the selected multi-criteria decision-making problem for EOL computers. This paper is further organized as follows. Section 2 provides a background of reverse logistics and its application in various industries including the computer industry. Then a brief discussion of the determinants, dimensions and their enablers of reverse logistics and alternatives to be evaluated in this model are provided. These characteristics are then used to structure the model. Later, the proposed methodology for evaluating the decision model is presented and applied to a decision-making problem faced by a small computer hardware company. This is followed by a discussion and managerial implications of this research. Finally, we conclude the work with the limitations of this work and directions for further research
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The reverse logistics practices may cost in millions of dollars for company. The implementation of these may be a risky endeavor for the top management as it involves financial and operational aspects, which can determine the performance of the company in the long run. However, with the legislative measures tightening up, there are not many options. The question now is not whether to go for it or not but which framework to pick up. This research is relevant in this sense. The ANP model presented in this paper structured the problem of conduct of reverse logistics for EOL computers in a hierarchical form and linked the determinants, dimensions, and enablers of the reverse logistics and the alternatives available to the decision maker for a computer industry. It can aid the top management in the evaluation of the various alternatives available with them as it measures the relative strengths of impacts between elements in the hierarchical model. Previously, the firms had overemphasized short-term financial performance. But no single measure can provide a clear performance focus on the critical areas of business (Kaplan & Norton, 1992). The same can be applicable to the conduct of the reverse logistics operations, as sole emphasis on the finance (economic) aspect would not provide a complete picture of the real situation. The model presented in this paper gives a holistic view of the various criteria affecting reverse logistics operations for EOL computers. It is holistic in the sense that it inherits the principle of balanced scorecard, which measures the performance of a firm in the four dimensions of customer, internal business, innovation and learning, and finance (Kaplan & Norton, 1992). Although the concept of balanced scorecard has been primarily designed for the measurement of the performance, we in this model have used these dimensions, in the dimension hierarchy of the ANP model in order to obtain a holistic framework towards the conduct of reverse logistics operations. It thus provides the decision makers with a balanced framework for reverse logistics for the conduct of reverse logistics operations, thus enhancing the value and clarity of the decision-making process needed by the top management. Thus, a combination of balanced scorecard and ANP approach proposed in this paper can provide to the decision maker a more realistic and accurate representation of the problem for conducting reverse logistics operations for EOL computers. A major contribution of this research study lies in its linkage of various issues of the reverse logistics in a single systemic framework. It is an attempt in this regard to aid the decision makers in the complex task of prioritizing their options. This decision model integrates and relies upon the various characteristics of reverse logistics of determinants, dimensions, enablers and their relationships. The utility of the ANP methodology in integrating both quantitative as well as the qualitative characteristics, which need the attention of the decision maker in arriving at the best possible solution, assumes tremendous value. The model developed in this paper has a few limitations as well. The formation of the pair-wise comparison matrices and data acquisition is a tedious and time-consuming task. In this case, 141 pair-wise matrices are formed. Also, more importantly, the results reported in this research are based on the opinion of the logistics manager of the case company. Thus, the pair-wise comparison of the criteria always depends on the user's knowledge and familiarity with the firm, its operations, and its industry. Therefore, the biasing of the manager to some criteria might have influenced the results. Although, we have tried to minimize this by checking the consistency of comparison using method of consistency-ratio check as suggested by Saaty (1980). Hence, the identification of the relevant attributes to the problem under consideration, the determination of their relative importance in comparison to others require extensive brainstorming sessions, and the accumulation of expertise and knowledge within the organization. Since many of the issues in the pair-wise comparisons are cross-functional in nature, a team of managers from various functional departments should be assigned the responsibility of comparison. Delphi method may also be a promising technique that may be explored in this regard. The logistics manager in this case computer company considered the approach to lead to an objective analysis of the situation and is currently implementing the virtual reverse logistics networks for PCs as an approach to the conduct of reverse logistics operations for EOL computers in their organization. The balanced view of all the four dimensions of the customer, internal business, innovation and learning, and financial with their enablers in the reverse logistics has enhanced the clarity of the decision making by the logistics manager. A possible extension of this research study might be to study the preferences of the user companies corresponding to different sizes and sectors, where these criteria may be modeled as per the choice of companies. The model may also be subjected to sensitivity analysis. User-friendly software may also be developed on the basis of the model.