ایزو 14001: به سوی کیفیت استانداردهای مدیریت زیست محیطی بین المللی برای مناطق حفاظت شده دریایی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6028||2008||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 51, Issue 11, 2008, Pages 727–739
This paper addresses the current lack of internationally recognized standards for quality management practices in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). The application of the ISO 14001 standard for environmental management systems to MPAs can provide a flexible and adaptive management system that can be integrated with existing MPA management practices as a standardized quality management process designed for the continuous improvement of MPA management. The paper provides a framework for applying ISO 14001 to MPAs and discusses the results of a practical case study in northern Chile wherein ISO 14001 was used as a benchmark for evaluating and improving the proposed management plan for a Chilean marine reserve.
The world's oceans are facing ever increasing human pressures resulting in the declining health of most marine ecosystems , ,  and . In part, it is suggested that these trends can be slowed if not reversed with increased conservation of the marine environment through the development of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) , ,  and . The recognition that MPAs are a key component to the recovery and sustainability and of marine ecosystems combined with increasing public pressure to preserve the marine environment has motivated many nations around the world to slowly increase the number of MPAs , ,  and . While progress is being made toward a global system of MPAs, in many regions a significant number of MPAs exist as ‘paper parks’ and lack adequate management  and . However, without adopting some essential quality management practices required to produce and demonstrate effective environmental management, the widespread development of MPAs will not meet the intended purposes of resorting and sustaining marine habitats and biodiversity. To address this problem a number of guidelines and best practices have been prescribed by academics, NGO's, and individual governments for the planning, development, management and evaluation of MPAs , , ,  and . In addition to these guidelines there are numerous goals and strategies for the management of MPAs. For example, some MPAs are designed as marine reserves solely to protect some commercially important species and to manage these reserves through a species-based focus with the ultimate goal of enhancing fish stocks  and . Other MPAs are developed and managed through an ecosystem-based approach to preserve important habitats and ecosystems, while integrating other human uses such as tourism, recreation, shipping, and fisheries  and . Mechanisms such as co-management, community-based management, traditional management, or combinations thereof are also employed to plan and administer MPAs through collaborations and/or empowerment of local stakeholders , ,  and . Each of these management tools can have varying levels of effectiveness for protection, enforcement, monitoring and evaluation of MPAs  and . However, while every MPA is slightly different in its surroundings, there is no one management system for MPAs that is currently recognized as an international standard. While it is important to have a suite of tools available for MPA management there should be some essential, internationally recognized and standardized quality management processes integrated into the management of all MPAs. This will help ensure that there is a system for continuously and systematically improving MPA management and the overall protection of the marine environment. This paper attempts to address the current lack of internationally recognized standards for quality management practices for MPAs. It is proposed that because the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a global leader in both quality (ISO 9000) and environmental (ISO 14000) management standards, the application of the ISO 14001 standard for environmental management systems to MPAs can provide a flexible and adaptive management system which can be integrated with existing practices as a standardized quality management process designed for the continuous improvement of MPA management. To build a case for ISO 14001 to be used as a global standard for MPA management, the following examines the adoption of ISO as a global standard, the international collaborative effort that was undertaken to develop the ISO 14001 standard, and its wide range of applications; including an in-depth examination of the standard's application to terrestrial protected areas management. Subsequently, a theoretical framework is provided for applying ISO 14001 to MPA management by comparing it to and integrating it with existing MPA management guidelines. Finally, the results of a practical case study are presented wherein ISO 14001 was used as a benchmark for evaluating and improving the proposed management plan for a newly created Chilean marine reserve.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The results from the field study of the Islas Choros–Damas Marine Reserve highlight the potential for using ISO 14001 as the benchmark for MPA management. By using ISO 14001 to evaluate the marine reserve's draft administrative plan, a number of missing management components were readily identified. In doing so, they can be prioritized such that some of these standard management practices can be integrated into the management plan before it was finalized, while others can be implemented as the marine reserve's management matures over time. Integrating these standard environmental management practices into the management of the Islas Choros–Damas Marine Reserve should result in more than just a management plan, but instead, an entire quality management system which can bring about continual improvement of the management of the marine reserve and ultimately preserve and/or enhance its environmental quality. In general, adopting the ISO 14001 EMS standard for MPA management could help to codify the existing MPA management guidelines and best practices by providing the essential components required for quality environmental management. This paper has demonstrated that ISO 14001 can provide a standardized, certifiable, and internationally recognized management system that is extremely flexible and can been applied to a wide variety of contexts, including protected areas management. Furthermore, using ISO 14001 in protected areas management can enhance communications, raise awareness, and engage the public in the planning process for protected areas, thereby reducing confusion and potential conflicts . The widespread use of ISO 14001 in MPA management could usher in a new internationally recognized standard for MPA management, which is auditable and certifiable. Adopting this ISO standard will provide a global benchmark for MPA management that can be utilized for identifying weaknesses in the management systems of MPAs around the world. Of course, the theoretical EMS framework proposed in this paper is by no means a ‘standard’, but an attempt to compare and integrate the existing doctrine on MPA management with the ISO 14001 standard. This should be considered as the first step in opening a dialogue for developing a new ISO standard specifically designed for the implementation of ISO 14001 in MPAs. As our case study revealed, implementing an ISO 14001 EMS requires, at a minimum, that a management and organizational structure be in place. It would be interesting to apply the EMS Gap Analysis to a well-established MPA to determine if it can be readily certified to the ISO 14001 standard.