بررسی عوامل بحرانی موفقیت اجرای ایزو 14001 با استفاده از فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP): مطالعه موردی از مالزی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6033||2008||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7010 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 16, Issue 13, September 2008, Pages 1424–1433
The factors and sub-factors critical to the successful implementation of ISO 14001-based environmental management system (EMS) and benefits that can be reaped from the implementation were explored in this study. An empirical study using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was carried out to find the relative weights and priorities of these critical success factors and benefits. The study was carried out in Malaysia among companies in the electrical and electronics sector. The results of the study indicate that the critical success factors in the order of importance are as follows: management approach, organizational change, technical aspects, and external and social aspects. The results of the study also indicate the benefits that can be obtained by the implementation of ISO 14001: improvement in the company's image and reputation, improvement in company's processes and profits, improvement in customer loyalty and trust, and improvement in staff morale and employer–employee relations.
ISO 14001 has attracted interest from industry, international organizations and governments around the globe. ISO 14001 standards are designed to help organizations to establish management processes for controlling and improving their environmental performance and for reducing the impact of their operations on the environment. Policy-makers and industry both appear to be looking at the standards as a key component of a new paradigm for cooperation between regulators and industry. This realization seems to have resulted from a growing awareness that the fragmented, reactive approach to environmental management does not produce optimal results. With the progressively widespread adoption of the ISO 14001 standards, it is not surprising that, in the near future, the implementation of an environmental management system (EMS), through registration with ISO 14001, will be the norm rather than the exception  and . ISO 14001 requires that environmental considerations encompass every aspect of the company's operations and procedures. Companies that wish to remain competitive and improve their environmental systems cannot ignore ISO 14001. The primary reasons why companies go for ISO 14001 registration are as follows: strong public pressure in developed and developing economies have made companies aware that the consumers are interested in the interactions of business operations with the environment ,  and ; to gain entry into the global market  and ; to maintain and gain competitive position in the global market  and ; to improve the company's image  and ; to improve the company's operations  and ; and to provide a clean environment through clean operations  and . This awareness is seen all over the world, especially, among developing economies like Malaysia. A recent study by Tan , on Malaysian firms registered with ISO 14001, indicates that companies perceive benefits from adopting ISO 14001 standards. The costs and benefits of ISO 14001 certification have resulted in firms choosing this route as a tool for proactive environmental management. However, the ISO 14001 certification can result in non-value added costs if it is pursued only for its marketing or regulatory appeal. The true value can be realized only when EMS is made consistent with the company's strategic direction. Environmental credibility is a fast becoming factor in national and international competitiveness. Implementation of ISO 14001 and subsequent registration can facilitate progress through measurement and innovation leading to increased profits, more efficient processes, reduced costs and a more credible image. Many countries have already declared ISO 14001 as their own national standard. Since the introduction of these standards, many companies from many countries have already been certified. Obtaining ISO 14001 certification is viewed by companies as a ticket to enter global market. According to statistics published by ISO in 2003, at least 49,462 ISO 14001 certificates have been issued in 118 countries. Japan, with a plan from the government to subsidize some of the costs for small and medium enterprises (SME), leads the pack. Although these arguments portray ISO 14001 in a positive light, not all firms share that enthusiasm. Many organizations have decided to delay the certification or to reject it altogether . This is because many organizations, with the intention to implement ISO 14001-based EMS, have had difficulties in determining the tangible and intangible benefits or impacts considering the cost incurred. Even companies that have successfully implemented ISO 14001 can question its effectiveness and true value to the company's overall performance . Bansal and Bogner  argue that organizations need to look at both economic and institutional factors that influence them in implementing ISO 14001. The success factors of ISO 14001 implementation can vary from country to country and may include factors such as governmental legislation, economic and political factors, and culture. The gap in the literature is filled by this study by identifying the critical success factors and benefits due to implementing ISO 14001. Although this study was done in Malaysia, we believe that the approach and the framework discussed in this paper can be applied in other countries. The success factors used in this study are grouped into four major constructs: (1) management approach (MA), (2) organizational change (OC), (3) external and social aspects (ENSA), and (4) technical aspects (TA). These four major constructs are broken down further into 14 sub-factors: (1) top management commitment and support (TMC), (2) environmental policies and objectives (EPO), (3) management reviews (MR), (4) training and awareness (TNA), (5) documentation and control (DC), (6) emergency response and preparedness (ERP), (7) communication (CM), (8) market pressure (MP), (9) government policies and legislation (GPL), (10) customer requirements (CR), (11) employee relations (ER), (12) production process enhancement (PPE), (13) monitoring and measuring equipment (MME), and (14) environmental specialist assistance (ESA). The benefits that accrue by implementing ISO 14001 are grouped into four main factors: (1) improved company reputation and image (ICRI), (2) increased staff morale and motivation (ISMM), (3) profit, performance, and opportunity (PPO), and (4) customer loyalty and trust (CLT). The rationale for choosing these factors is given in Section 3. Since there are a few studies in developing economies, like Malaysia, and since the number of certified companies in Malaysia are few in number (only 97 as on April, 2004), this study is more of an exploratory study. Therefore, instead of using a rigorous statistical approach (which depends upon the sample size) we have used an analytical approach such as AHP (analytic hierarchy process) to study the factors that influence implementation and benefits of ISO 14001. This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses the basics of ISO 14000 and previous studies related to the implementation of ISO 14001. Section 3 discusses the critical success factors and benefits of implementation. Section 4 discusses the methodology. Section 5 analyzes the results. Section 6 concludes with implications of the study.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
A multi-attribute evaluation technique, AHP, has been proposed to help one to identify the factors and sub-factors that are critical to the successful implementation of ISO 14001-based EMS and benefits that arise from the implementation. The research model proposed in this study provides a methodology to analyze and understand the critical success factors and benefits due to implementing ISO 14001. Even though the study was performed in the electrical and electronics sector in Malaysia, the proposed research model can be used in other sectors. At this point, we acknowledge the fact that the sample is relatively small (22 respondents) and therefore, generalization of the results must be done with caution. The findings of this empirical study indicate which factors an organization should consider for successful implementation of ISO 14001. As shown in this study, the drive to the whole process comes from the top management and the entire organization has to be committed towards this effort. All employees must be given proper training and general awareness level must be high. Processes, structure, and attitude of the organization towards the environment have to be geared to reap maximum benefits from the implementation. Proper equipment to monitor the systems and technical expertise must be available within an organization to ensure continuous improvement in the management of environment. The pressure from customers, stakeholders, and government regulatory bodies quickens the pace of implementation. The benefits reaped from the implementation are many, including: improvement in the company's image and reputation, improvement in efficiency of processes and profits, improvement in customer loyalty and trust, and improvement in staff morale and employer–employee relations.