قلب های تنها: دیدگاه های روان شناختی درباره تنهایی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|60625||1999||22 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||18072 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Applied and Preventive Psychology, Volume 8, Issue 1, Winter 1999, Pages 1–22
Loneliness is a complex set of feelings encompassing reactions to the absence of intimate and social needs. Although transient for some individuals, loneliness can be a chronic state for others. We review the developmental, social, personality, clinical, and counseling psychology literatures on loneliness with an emphasis on recent empirical findings. Chronic feelings of loneliness appear to have roots in childhood and early attachment processes. Chronically lonely individuals are more likely to be high in negative affectivity, act in a socially withdrawn fashion, lack trust in self and others, feel little control over success or failure, and generally be dissatisfied with their relationships compared to nonlonely individuals. Loneliness has also been associated with a variety of individual differences including depression, hostility, pessimism, social withdrawal, alienation, shyness, and low positive affect; loneliness is also a concomitant of more severe disorders, such as clinical depression, borderline personality, and schizophrenia. Although loneliness affects a large number of individuals and is associated with numerous negative outcomes, relatively few investigations have examined the efficacy of treatments aimed at alleviating or preventing loneliness. Several investigations raise the possibility of treating loneliness, but the absence of appropriate comparison groups casts doubt on the efficacy of many of these treatments. Correlational studies also suggest that one close friend or romantic partner may be sufficient to buffer those at risk for loneliness. Research on causal processes is sparse, however, and more research is needed to delineate which factors are antecedents and which are consequences of loneliness.