پردازنده کار - درک شغلی، تعهد سازمانی و رضایت شغلی در بخش کروز
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6178||2012||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Tourism Management, Volume 33, Issue 3, June 2012, Pages 592–597
This paper focuses on the perceived work environment and its influence on organizational commitment and job satisfaction in the cruise sector. Two focus group interviews were conducted in addition to one survey among the crew in an upmarket cruise line. The focus groups elicited responses concerning crew experiences of working onboard. Based on this information, a questionnaire was constructed to measure job perceptions among crew members. The results indicate that all of the experience domains were related to job commitment and job satisfaction, but that the strongest effects were found to be perceived “Respect”, the “Social atmosphere”, and “Food and living quarters”.
Although the cruise sector is a fast-growing segment of the international tourism industry (Gibson, 2006, Hung and Petrick, 2010 and Murray, 2005), it has received relatively little research attention (Hosany and Witham, 2009 and Lee-Ross, 2006). Loper (2005) highlights a number of important challenges facing the cruise segment. These include: (1) The changing demographics of cruise passengers, (2) the question of how to attract customers, and (3) how to maintain customer loyalty (Dowling & Cowan, 2002; Gibson, 2006 and Petrick et al., 2007). Another problem is the sustainability issue (Dowling & Cowan, 2002; Johnson, 2002 and Klein, 2008), including pollution (Klein, 2005 and Klein, 2008), safety and hygiene (Klein, 2005 and Klein, 2008), and various problems of the marginal economic impact of the industry on destinations (Klein, 2005, Klein, 2008, Seidl et al., 2007 and Wilkinson, 1999). The sustainability issue also incorporates some economic implications, for example that cruise passengers in the future will be expected to pay more “ecotaxes”, at least in some areas. Still, from the point of view of the passenger, more immediate issues such as food poisoning (e.g. Larsen et al., 2007 and Swaan et al., 2010) and other salient issues of risk and worry (Larsen, Brun, & Øgaard, 2009) may also prove to be important for choice of cruise line and itinerary. In addition to such external challenges linked to the market (environment and economical impact), the cruise sector also faces several internal exertions at an operative level. Such problems include the relatively complicated areas of staffing (Gibson, 2006) and handling of management issues in everyday multicultural environments (Tsoukatos & Rand, 2007) of cruise ships (Testa, 2004). This is pivotal in maintaining high service quality, in reducing costs by a decreased demand for recruiting new personnel, and through savings made by decreasing the demand for initial training of newly-recruited crew members. For any operation in the cruise sector, the staffing question represents at least a two-fold challenge. On the one hand, it concerns recruiting and selecting staff (Larsen & Rapp, 1993), for example chefs, sommeliers, waiters, and other highly qualified frontline personnel, who may get better paying jobs in good restaurants at home. On the other hand, this problem pertains to the issue of keeping such crews happy so that they stay onboard for more than one contract. It is well known in the service literature that happy service staff tend to produce happy guests (e.g. Nebeker et al., 2001; Brown and Lam, 2008 and Yee et al., 2008), and in turn happy guests are more willing to return to the same service provider. In fact, Harter, Schmidt, Asplund, Killham, and Agrawal (2010) documented a causal relationship between employees’ work perceptions and the bottom line of organizations Therefore, crew members’ perceptions of their work environment and the relationship of these factors to organizational commitment and job satisfaction are areas of fundamental importance for cruise lines ( Larsen and Folgerø, 1993, Larsen and Rapp, 1993, Testa, 2001, Testa, 2004 and Testa and Mueller, 2009). 1.1. Aspects of working onboard In pinpointing the concept of the “tourist gaze”, Urry (1998) brought some of the problems of management in the hospitality and tourism industries to the forefront within the framework of a more general sociological approach. Urry maintained that in the tourism industry, labor itself is part of the service product, which logically makes the service worker part of the service. This implies that various domains of the service workers’ individualities, such as the way they speak, their appearances, and their personalities become matters of management interest – management is expected to interfere, intervene and control these aspects of a service worker’s personal behavior. This sort of understanding is in line with Hochschild’s (1983) analysis. She underlined that service work is emotional labor inasmuch as the customer procures the service workers’ personal demeanors. This aspect of service work results in a commercialization of human feelings (Urry, 1998, p. 70; Johansson & Näslund, 2009), which in turn is related to particular experiences of worry (Larsen, Øgaard, & Marnburg, 2005), isolation and other negative affects (Larsen & Folgerø, 1993), as well as a series of positive affects resulting from successful service encounters and manager-employee relations. Looking at the cruise sector specifically, Larsen (1996) underlined that cruise ships are often staffed by an international crew, which might be one motivator for many to take up work in this sector. He also noted that younger people in particular would work onboard cruise ships because of the opportunity it provides to see the world, a point also highlighted by Gibson (2006). At the same time, Larsen and Rapp (1993) alleged that this sector had traditionally been relatively hierarchically organized, and that this could be problematic in contemporary societies where “today’s personnel markets see themselves as socially equals, not only of their supervisors but also of their passengers” (p. 5). They also maintained that one important objective of any cruise line would be to lengthen each employee’s tenure for as long as possible. Johansson and Näslund (2009) argued that onboard cruise ships, emotional labor helps to create the cruise experience. Larsen and Folgerø (1993) highlighted that cruise ships are distinguished by a certain level of isolation, inasmuch as the crew is cut off from families and friends and from various recreational possibilities. De Lange, De Witte, and Notelaers (2008) reported that low work engagement, low job autonomy, and low departmental resources predicted low retention. In a recent review, Harter et al. (2010) found that managerial actions and practices impact employees’ perceptions of work conditions. The present research therefore addresses the issue of job perceptions in cruise line crews within this general framework. The basic research problem is two-fold: The first is to describe the parameters of the job perceptions in cruise line crews, and the second is to study how these perceptions are related to outcomes at an individual level in terms of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. The overarching research question may therefore be formulated as: Which job perceptions are related to high commitment and high satisfaction in cruise line crews?
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The main finding in this study is that job perception in the cruise industry incorporates factors such as the crew’s relationship with supervisors, colleagues, and clients (guests), and encompasses physical aspects of the work environment. We also found that three of these dimensions; the experience of “Supervisor respect and fairness”, the positive experience of the “Social atmosphere: Guests and friends”, and the positive experiences of food and living quarters, all significantly predicted job satisfaction in cruise line crews. Job commitment was found to be predicted by the same factors as well as by the empirical factors of “Getting to see the world” and the experience of “Supervisors’ flexibility”. Our results further showed that job perception factors were judged to be relatively positive in the current cruise line. Nonetheless, crew with supervisory responsibilities perceived “See the world and earn money” to be less important than non-supervising crew perceived this factor to be. Neither age nor gender can explain this difference. Job perceptions are important inasmuch as they are related in various ways to peoples’ everyday lives (Harter & Arora, 2009). Judge and Ilies (2004) found that moods at work affected moods after work, and underlined that attitudes toward work extended to emotions after work. Onboard cruise ships, one may expect these relationships to be even stronger, since the workplace is not only the arena for work but also for much of the crew members’ leisure time; the cruise ship is both home and work. However, the fact that most crew have separate areas for work and leisure time onboard does not mean that these are distinctly separated at the psychological level. People may feel that the confines of the cruise ship are tight, and that there is no real possibility for them to get away from these confines for leisure purposes. This is one important reason why job perceptions, particularly as they pertain to the social life onboard (relationships to superordinates, colleagues, subordinates, and guests) are of particular interest for the cruise sector. Another reason for approaching this challenging area of research in the cruise sector is that job perceptions have been shown to be linked with job satisfaction (Testa & Mueller, 2009). Indeed, job perceptions have been causally linked with the bottom line and with customer loyalty in various industries (Harter et al., 2010). This further underlines that job perceptions should be an area of concern, both for the organization’s strategic management and for the daily leadership onboard cruise liners. Customer satisfaction is positively related to profitability (Harter et al., 2010 and Cronin and Taylor, 1992), and customer satisfaction is, to a large extent, a function of the service workers’ happiness (Yee et al., 2008). In addition, our data suggest that job experiences influence outcomes such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and logically an intense focus should be held concerning this issue. It is our contention that if the cruise line is successful in administering factors that influence job satisfaction and organizational commitment, such as the crew’s perception of their jobs, they can also develop their internal cultures, their work environment as it is, in the direction of promoting positive outcomes concerning organizational commitment and job satisfaction. This logically highlights one other area of interest for this kind of research, namely the relationship of job experiences on the one side and satisfaction with life in general on the other. In an essay published almost 20 years ago, Larsen and Rapp (1993) raised the issue of crew tenure, an area which is no less difficult to handle today (Testa, 2004). Based on the knowledge drawn from the present study, we can probably say that Larsen and Rapp’s contention that online management training is pivotal is equally valid today, since such training efforts may influence both spheres of crew members’ lives. In addition, we now know that in order to increase the likelihood of keeping qualified workers within the cruise industry, attention needs to be directed directly toward work environment issues, including those that concern perceptions of managers, colleagues, and guests onboard, and those that pertain to the general social environment of the cruise ship as such. 4.1. Some final remarks The response rate in the present research is somewhat low. This can be interpreted as fear or resistance in the crew. It may also reflect some of the individual ships’ cultures as being protective and not open to insight from external individuals. Thirdly, it may reflect the personnel’s suspicions concerning the organization as such, or concerning the researchers; they may not have believed in the assurance of anonymity. The lack of research into the cruise sector is probably due in part to the difficulties in gathering data from the sector, and to the difficulties in getting access both to people working in the industry and to cruise line passengers for systematic sampling and data collection purposes. One may, of course, also speculate that some operators in the cruise industry would be hesitant to allow researchers to enter their domain, reluctant to be researched and to pay the price for getting systematic knowledge. Along the same lines, one could also speculate that the cruise sector is highly vulnerable and that operators in the industry tend to keep what is understood to be “trade secrets” to themselves for reasons of competition. On the other hand, it may well be that managers in the sector are skeptical toward academic research because research results are viewed at best as “not being practical”, or at worst, as useless. Our results stipulate relationships between theoretical constructs, but they can also be translated relatively easily into practical management and leadership skills. Onboard cruise ships, our data could guide training programs for officers and supervising crew in basic skills of interaction and of communication of respect and flexibility. Huang and Hsu (2010) showed that contact between customers onboard cruise ships is important for the service quality experience of the clients, just as our data show that such contact between crew members is important for crew members. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that communication skills training, highlighting respect and flexibility, could have spillover effects inasmuch as such abilities are generic and can be applied in many relationships, also in relation to customers. Such training efforts could, therefore, easily turn out to be win–win situations. At the same time, it is imperative to underline that the cruise sector should not be deceived by consultancies offering expensive programs with “guaranteed positive effects” (cf. Stanovich, 2010). If such programs are not based on sound empirical knowledge, they may prove to be of marginal, if indeed any, value. While Lee-Ross (2006) asserted that there are a lot of “poor management practices” (p. 48) and inadequate training in the cruise sector, we are confident that such practices will not improve unless both selection and online training of mangers in the cruise sector are based on sound knowledge.