کاهش فرسودگی شغلی و افزایش رضایت شغلی : نقش انتقادی و هوش هیجانی کارکنان هتل و نیروی کار عاطفی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6184||2012||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||10030 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 31, Issue 4, December 2012, Pages 1101–1112
Despite its strong theoretical relevance with emotional labor, employees’ ability to understand and regulate emotions (i.e., emotional intelligence, EI) has seldom been studied, especially how it affects hotel employees responding to the firm's display rules (i.e., emotional labor) and experiencing burnout and job satisfaction. Thus, this study investigated direct and indirect effects of employees’ EI on two different forms of emotional labor (i.e., emotional effort: EE; emotional dissonance: ED): burnout and job satisfaction. Data were collected from 309 customer-contact hotel employees and managers in the United States. Results of structural equation modeling showed that EI had a direct, positive effect on EE and personal accomplishment and a direct, negative effect on ED and depersonalization. EI was also found to indirectly affect job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion through the mediating roles of personal accomplishment and ED, respectively. Additionally, ED was found to directly affect depersonalization and indirectly affect job satisfaction through emotional exhaustion while EE directly affects personal accomplishment and indirectly affects job satisfaction through personal accomplishment. Finally, personal accomplishment was found to mediate the depersonalization–job satisfaction relationship. Managerial implications for human resource practices are provided.
The quality of the interpersonal interaction between customers and service employees is critical in satisfying customers, ultimately influencing the bottom line of the company (Ashkanasy et al., 2002 and Bitner, 1990). Positive attitudes and emotions in service employees during service encounters can create a favorable impression on customers. They are then more likely to purchase a product, do return business with the company, and speak well of the company (Parasuraman et al., 1985). Because of this, most companies in today's highly competitive business environment have begun to focus heavily on managing their employees’ emotional behavior (Diefendorff and Richard, 2003), prescribing implicit and explicit display rules for the appropriate emotional expressions that their employees should use during customer encounters (Ashforth and Humphrey, 1993). In hospitality, employees perform two types of emotional labor; some employees may choose outward displays consistent with display rules but hide or mask felt emotions. In contrast, others may attempt to modify internal feelings about display rules or customer contact situations (Hochschild, 1983). Employees who repeatedly suppress their true emotions or fake them to follow the display rules suffer a continuing discrepancy between inner feelings and outward expressions (Grandey, 2000). This emotional discrepancy leads to emotional discomfort and job stress that in turn causes burnout and job dissatisfaction (Zapf, 2002). On the other hand, when employees make an effort to feel the required emotions, they feel emotional congruence between true feelings and emotional display, increasing their personal accomplishment and job satisfaction (Adelmann, 1995). The ability of an individual to recognize his/her own feelings and those of others and to motivate and manage his/her own emotions well in relationship with others (i.e., emotional intelligence – EI) is critical in performing emotional labor (Goleman, 2000). Research has shown that EI can influence how people control their emotions and handle frustration. Emotionally intelligent people are sensitive and empathetic to the feeling and emotion of others (Cheung and Tang, 2009). The positive attributes of EI may change employees’ emotional labor behaviors and, thus, may contribute to reducing burnout and increasing job satisfaction. Recently, during the global economic downturn, customers have become value-seekers, and service providers strive to provide quality service at reduced cost. Accordingly, the concept of emotions at work has attracted the interest of researchers and practitioners alike (Cartwright and Pappas, 2007). However, research has focused more on showing direct associations of emotional labor with antecedents such as personal/job characteristics or consequences such as job related attitudes and behaviors (e.g., Abraham, 1999, Bakker and Heuven, 2006, Brotheridge and Lee, 2002, Brotheridge and Lee, 2003, Chau et al., 2009, Côté and Morgan, 2002, Diefendorff et al., 2005, Kim, 2008 and Zhang and Zhu, 2008). Little empirical research has been devoted to an integrated view, examining antecedents of emotional labor that may further influence the outcomes of emotional labor (Allen et al., 2010, Austin et al., 2008 and Giardini and Frese, 2006). Therefore, this study investigated the antecedent role of employees’ EI on the links between emotional labor, burnout, and job satisfaction. Specifically, this study examined how employees’ EI directly influences emotional effort (EE) and emotional dissonance (ED) and indirectly affects the three burnout dimensions and job satisfaction through emotional labor in the hotel setting. In the hospitality industry, where face-to-face and voice-to-voice interactions between service providers and customers continually occur, employees are particularly vulnerable to the demands of emotional labor (Pizam, 2004). However, although current hotel human resources managers are aware of the concept of emotional labor, not many hotel organizations effectively implement strategies to control emotional labor and prevent burnout (Johanson and Woods, 2008). Thus, a deeper and clearer understanding of the EI-emotional labor process and its positive or negative consequences for employees is critical in attempting to create strategies for controlling emotional labor and its outcomes (Johnson and Spector, 2007). Thus, the comprehensive view of the interactions among EI, emotional labor, burnout, and job satisfaction in this study will provide hospitality practitioners and researchers with insights into the process of EI and how emotional labor affects hospitality employees’ job attitudes and behaviors. With these insights, they may also develop and implement effective employee support programs and policies associated with EI, emotional labor, burnout, and job satisfaction.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
6.1. Theoretical implications Despite the volume of literature on EI and emotional labor, very little research has integrated EI and its impact on emotional labor and the major outcomes of emotional labor such as burnout and job satisfaction (e.g., Allen et al., 2010, Austin et al., 2008, Bakker and Heuven, 2006, Brackett et al., 2010, Cheung and Tang, 2009 and Giardini and Frese, 2006). By filling this gap, this study provides a valuable contribution to the literature on emotions in the hospitality workplace. First, this study considered outcomes of emotional labor (i.e., burnout and job satisfaction), as well as emotional labor, to more comprehensively and integratively evaluate the impact of EI. This allowed us to empirically examine the different effects that EI has on the two dimensions of emotional labor, job satisfaction, and three burnout dimensions in a hotel setting. Thus, the present study builds an extensive and integrative EI-emotional labor-burnout/job satisfaction path model, clarifying the beneficial role of EI. Second, our findings showed that these two different and complicated forms of emotional labor have bi-directional effects on burnout and job satisfaction. This finding is in line with the Job Demands Resources (JD-R) model that posits high job demands or negative aspects of work may deplete employees’ physiological and/or psychological resources and lead to burnout, whereas the availability of resources encourages motivation and leads to positive attitudes, behavior, and well-being while reducing the impact of job demands and the associated physiological and psychological strain like burnout (Bakker and Demerouti, 2007 and Demerouti et al., 2001). ED, in emotionally demanding situations where EI is low, leads to feelings of emotional depletion and burnout. On the other hand, high EI in emotionally demanding situations increases engagement in EE, which is, in turn, positively associated with job satisfaction. Concurrently, high EI also reduces burnout by decreasing emotional demands and dissonance. Given that the JD-R model was only recently introduced to the academic community as part of an emerging research trend called positive psychology (a branch of psychology that emphasizes human strengths and optimal functioning; Bakker and Demerouti, 2007, Luthans, 2002 and Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000), our conceptual model provides empirical evidence of positive organizational behavior concepts and positive emotions. Third, this study adopted Maslach and Jackson's (1981) multidimensional conceptualization of burnout and thus included the three dimensions of burnout as separate but interrelated constructs. Our results show that the burnout process involves emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a reduced sense of accomplishment occurring in sequence, as postulated in Maslach and Jackson's model, and therefore our results clearly support the generalizability of Maslach and Jackson's model to the hotel setting. Fourth, examining the individual effects of EI and emotional labor on separate burnout dimensions produced interesting results on the predictors of the dimensions, which has further theoretical implications. According to conventional burnout research (e.g., Maslach and Jackson, 1981, Maslach and Jackson, 1982 and Maslach and Leiter, 1997), depersonalization occurs as a coping response to emotional exhaustion; emotional exhaustion predicts depersonalization. However, our study suggested that depersonalization may also be triggered by ED even when emotional exhaustion is not present. Additionally, our results showed that personal accomplishment, when affected by EI, EE, and depersonalization, predicts job satisfaction. This result underscores the importance of personal accomplishment in employee job satisfaction. Therefore, this empirical evidence establishes meaningful links for future emotional labor research on burnout and job satisfaction. 6.2. Managerial implications Our findings underscore the importance of EI as a predictor of emotional labor, burnout, and job satisfaction. More specifically, we found that, if employees are emotionally intelligent, they actively try to feel the emotions required by display rules, feel personal accomplishment, and are satisfied with their jobs. Further, employees who have lower levels of EI tend to regulate their emotional expression superficially by hiding felt emotions or faking unfelt emotions; as a result, they become emotionally exhausted and treat others impersonally. These findings thus have implications for human resources practices. Hospitality organizations may want to use a measure of EI in recruiting and selecting employees to maintain high quality human resources. Hospitality involves high levels of emotional challenges, so should hiring take that into account to avoid reduced productivity, lowered service quality, and service disruption. In fact, empirical research has demonstrated the importance of screening for EI. According to Spencer et al. (1997), L’Oreal's sales associates hired after screening for EI sold about $90,000 more and had 63% less turnover during the first year than associates who were not screened. Hospitality organizations may also consider implementing EI training or development programs to foster employees’ emotional competence. An individual's EI level is not static; it can be enhanced through training (Slaski and Cartwright, 2003 and Taylor, 2002). Pesuric and Byham (1996) revealed that, after a company implemented training in emotional competencies, the formal grievance rate decreased from 15% per year to 3%. Thus, our research suggests that, by developing EI training programs, hospitality organizations can increase EI skills like empathy, self-awareness, self-control, and self-motivation, which helps employees withstand ED more effectively and also engage in EE, as well as reduce personnel problems. Our study further confirmed the consensus of previous studies on the double-edged effect of emotional labor: the functional consequence of EE and dysfunctional effects of ED on job satisfaction and burnout. Given that poor customer service can be due to employee burnout and job dissatisfaction (Rucci et al., 1998), hospitality organizations should therefore focus on helping employees make EE in service encounters. To do this, training should make employees aware of the importance of EE in customer interaction and teach employees appropriate emotional display techniques or necessary skills. Of the suggested skills, cognitive reappraisal and attention deployment are meaningful in the hotel industry (Grandey, 2000, Mikolajczak et al., 2007b and Totterdell and Holman, 2003). Cognitive reappraisal requires employees to view or appraise situations more positively to modify the emotions that the situations induce. An example of this technique would be attempting to evaluate a situation from the customer's perspective. On the other hand, attention deployment involves focusing attention on the positive aspects of a situation or changing focus to things that induce the required emotions (Totterdell and Holman, 2003). An employee could focus on pleasant memories to repair unpleasant moods. Using these skills and techniques, hospitality companies would be strategic, not reactive and prescriptive, in their approach to employee emotional labor (Budhwar, 2000). Our results also echoed the conclusion that ED leads to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Research has demonstrated that this relationship occurs because employees who suppress their emotions consume resources needed for regulating their own emotions without a way to replenish those mental resources (Jackson et al., 1986). Therefore, hospitality organizations should help employees recharge valuable emotional resources and provide information useful in performing effective EE in emotionally challenging service encounters. For employees to keep their emotional resources charged, management should listen to their employees, particularly when they have concerns about work, and encourage employees and managers to share experiences and skills with each other. Finally, our results show that a sense of personal accomplishment is important to employee job satisfaction. Personal accomplishment mediated the relationship between EI and job satisfaction and between EE and job satisfaction. These mediating effects of personal accomplishment explain how service employees become satisfied with their jobs when they experience a feeling of achievement or increased efficacy from successfully engaging EE and exhibiting EI in emotionally demanding service interactions. Therefore, hospitality organizations must make their service employees feel a sense of accomplishment and emotional efficacy when they perform successful EE behavior or exert EI in service encounters. For example, hospitality organizations may give formal and/or informal compliments to their service employees whenever the employees cope well with customer complaints or requests with both sincerity and good faith. Hospitality organizations could also implement formal or informal reward programs to recognize employees who successfully use EE and EI, thus encouraging them. 6.3. Suggestions for future research Previous research has recognized that individual differences like personality also influence emotional labor. For example, an individual with positive affectivity, such as enthusiasm, optimism, and positive evaluations of social environments, may respond to negative events more strongly and therefore may need to adopt a higher level of emotional labor at work (Grandey, 2000). Also, people who monitor and control their publicly observable behavior (i.e., high self-monitors) tend to be more willing/able to modify their own emotional display to accommodate a situation and thus, are less susceptible to ED than low self-monitors (Grandey, 2000). Therefore, future research may include other personality variables to examine the aggregate or interaction effects of individual differences. In addition to employees’ individual personal traits, specific job characteristics like autonomy and frequency of service interaction may also influence emotional labor, burnout, and job satisfaction (Erickson and Wharton, 1997, Greengrass et al., 1998, Kruml and Geddes, 2000, Ma et al., 2003, Morris and Feldman, 1996 and Parker and Axtell, 2001). Those with more autonomy or more authority on the job are less likely to experience ED than lower level employees because the former have more control over challenging service encounters than the latter. Also, individuals involved in service interaction are more likely to experience burnout than those who are not because the latter are less likely to deplete their psychological/emotional resources (Kim, 2008). Thus, future study may want to consider using two separate group samples: managers and line-employees. Given that managers typically have more autonomy and interact less frequently with customers, our results may differ for employees in different positions. The differences in autonomy or authority between line-employees and managers may void the mediating effect of ED on the link between EI and emotional exhaustion or EI and depersonalization for managers because managers have more freedom and choices in making decisions in service situations and thus feel less ED than line-employees. 6.4. Limitations The primary limitation involved in this study is the use of self-report questionnaires. In spite of its usefulness in measuring emotion (Wallbott and Scherer, 1989), self-report methodology may lead to inflated relationships among variables, and thus the data in this study would be biased by common method variance (CMV) in statistical analysis (Podsakoff et al., 2003). If the data on EI and EE were collected from different sources such as supervisors or co-workers of the respondents, the findings might differ from the ones reported in this research. However, while this limitation is the case in present study, we took steps during data collection to attenuate the effect of CMV by guaranteeing the anonymity and confidentiality of individual responses. We further conducted Harman's single-factor test (Podsakoff et al., 2003) and found that CMV did not significantly affect our findings. Another limitation of our study concerns the cross-sectional design of the study. Data were collected at one point in time, so inferences about the causal nature of the relationship examined in this study are difficult (Bobko and Stone-Romero, 1998). Also, given the cross-sectional data in our study, alternative causal paths or changes in causal directions and sequential orders may exist (Giardini and Frese, 2006). Therefore, future research may use longitudinal design to allow researchers to examine in more depth the causal associations between EI, emotional labor, and other job-related attitudinal outcomes.