نابرابری جنسیتی در رضایت شغلی مدیران غربی در مقابل مدیران آسیایی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6191||2013||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Available online 28 April 2013
This study is to shed more light on gender disparity in job satisfaction in the context of Western versus Asian managers. It addresses the “gender paradox of the female contented worker” and takes a position that the paradox does not apply to female managers in Asia. Data were collected from Thailand as representative of Asian countries and from the U.S. as representative of Western countries. The data show that the gender paradox phenomenon is suspect at best. The results suggest that there is gender disparity in job satisfaction in both countries. There are also significant gender disparities in lower-order quality of work life (QWL) and organizational socialization in Thailand, but not in the U.S. There is no significant gender disparity in higher-order QWL in both countries. These results imply that gender disparity in job satisfaction in Thailand is driven mainly by significant gender disparity in lower-order QWL and organizational socialization.
Job satisfaction has been an important research topic for many years (Clark, 1997, Donohue and Heywood, 2004 and Sloane and Williams, 2000). Job satisfaction is closely related to income, working conditions, effort requirements, chance for promotions, self-actualization potential and more (Bender et al., 2005 and Clark and Oswald, 1996). Studies have generally revealed that female workers tend to experience substantial disadvantages in the workplace compared to their male counterpart. Women are still over-represented in lower-paying jobs (Banyard, 2010 and Bradley, 2007), while only 3% of the CEOs of Fortune 500 companies are female (Catalyst, 2010). Female workers experience: • lower pay (Cohen and Huffman, 2003, Cotter et al., 2004 and England, 2010), • gender bias in hiring and evaluation (Ely and Meyerson, 2000 and Ridgeway, 1997), • limited training opportunities (Lynch, 1992), and • disadvantages in pension and other benefits (Heywood, 1989). Despite the fact that women earn less and enjoy substantially less autonomy and status in the workplace than men, research has shown that women tend to express higher levels of work satisfaction than men. This has come to be known as the paradox of the female contented worker ( Agassi, 1982, Clark, 1997, Crosby, 1982, Donohue and Heywood, 2004, Hodson, 1989 and Phelan, 1994). One possible reason for this paradox is difference in preferences and weights that women and men place on their jobs ( Clark, 1997, Hakim, 1996 and Sloane and Williams, 2000). Studies have found that while male workers prefer jobs with high income, responsibility, and opportunities for leadership; female workers prefer jobs with good co-workers, good supervisors, and the opportunity to help others (Konrad, Corrigall, Lieb, & Ritchie, 2000). These job preference differences result from gender socialization (Perlman & Pike, 1994) and a desire to integrate work and family life (Garey, 1999). Women have stronger desire to integrate work and family (Garey, 1999); therefore, they are more likely to choose to work part-time (Epstein et al., 1999; Glauber, 2012). The research reported in this paper focuses on cross-cultural gender disparity in relation to job satisfaction, organizational socialization, and quality-of-work life. The authors argue that, in addition to its direct effect, gender can affect job satisfaction by means of organizational socialization and quality of work life. These constructs are important because of their organizational outcome effects, as well as their pronounced managerial implications. Culture is also an important construct in this study (by using survey data of managers from Thailand and the U.S.) because much of the research dealing with the paradox of the female contented worker has been conducted in developed countries or Western countries (Koonmee, Singhapakdi, Virakul, & Lee, 2010). Based on a literature review, no studies were identified that compare Western managers with Asian managers. Therefore, this study is designed to contribute to the extant literature given that the U.S. is representative of the developed and Western countries, whereas Thailand is considered to be representative of developing and non-Western countries. Moreover, as noted by Marta and Singhapakdi (2005), the two countries are also different in terms of cultural values. Based on Hofstede's (1980) cultural typology, they concluded by making the following assertion: Thais are more collectivist than Americans and more accepting of enduring power differentials. Thailand is a more feminine culture, which means they tend to prefer more nurturing over aggressive behavior, and they also strive harder to avoid situations of uncertainty (Marta & Singhapakdi, 2005; p. 564). The feminist movement in the U.S. in the last few decades has helped bring about gender reforms in the U.S. such as greater access to education, more equitable pay, and a reduction of domestic violence. Concerning equality in the workplace, it is probably true that women now have pay that is more equitable with men (Banyard, 2010 and Bradley, 2007). However, it is important to discern if they, also, have achieved more equality in the workplace in terms of work–life quality, organizational socialization, and job satisfaction. Given the extensive globalization in the recent decades, it is also important to determine if this workplace liberalization has taken place in developing and non-Western countries such as Thailand. The findings from this research are important because they may highlight the need for both private and public sectors to develop specific policies to address gender-disparity issues in the workplace, especially in the developing and non-Western countries. As previously mentioned, the focus of the present study is on job satisfaction, organizational socialization, and quality-of-work life (QWL) because of their organizational outcome effects and their pronounced managerial implications. These work-related factors (organizational performance, organizational commitment, work–life balance, and life satisfaction) are vitally important for the health of both the employer and the employee. QWL and job satisfaction are factors that affect employee well-being; and developing policies and programs designed to enhance QWL and job satisfaction is essentially an ethical imperative in today's business (Cascio, 1998). It is important to note that QWL is different from job satisfaction. According to previous research, QWL is an antecedent of job satisfaction (e.g., Koonmee et al., 2010; Lee, Singhapakdi, & Sirgy, 2007). Ultimately, employee socialization affects job satisfaction; thus, policies and programs designed to enhance employee socialization should enhance organizational health through increased job satisfaction (Singhapakdi et al., 2010 and Van Maanen, 1976). While more women are in management roles in today's organizations, misleading assumptions regarding women in leadership positions have not changed much over the years (O'Neil, Hopkins, & Bilimoria, 2008). As the paradox of the female contented worker is based on research conducted in Western countries, it may not be applicable to Asian countries or Asian female business executives. In addition, past research has focused on women workers in general, as opposed to business executives. The present study, with its focus on the paradox of the female contented worker, uses data from managers from both Western and Asian countries.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
An association between gender and job satisfaction is hypothesized in that female managers are likely to experience less job satisfaction than male managers. The study findings provide support for this hypothesis. The results show that female managers experience low levels of job satisfaction compared to male managers. Thus, the study provides counter evidence in relation to the female contented worker paradox. Social scientists have long predicted that women are likely to express low levels of job satisfaction because they earn less and enjoy substantially less autonomy and status in the workplace than men (see literature review in Rapoport et al., 2002). The authors also argue that the paradox of the female contented worker may not extend to female business executives because female executives are likely to compare themselves with male executives (peers). By doing so, they perceive gender inequity, causing job dissatisfaction (cf. Hakim, 1996, Hodson, 1989 and Wharton and Baron, 1991). The findings of this study are consistent with this explanation and imply that organizations should develop equity programs designed to reduce compensation inequities between male and female managers. Doing so is likely to help improve job satisfaction among female managers. The study findings also support the moderation effect of culture in that Asian female managers are likely to experience lower job satisfaction than Asian male managers; but, as hypothesized, this difference is not evident between Western male and female managers. This implies that any efforts to improve job satisfaction among higher-level female employees would be even more crucial for organizations in Asian countries like Thailand. Again, the recommendation, based on the study results, is to develop equity program designed to reduce compensation inequities between male and female executives in Thailand and other Asian countries. In other words, developing compensation equity programs is likely to enhance job satisfaction, particularly among Asian female executives. Across countries, there may be a tendency for female managers to report lower levels of job satisfaction because they are exposed to feminist literature that shows women are discriminated against in the workplace. An example of such publicity is the recent report on “Women and Work” in the Economist (November 26th, 2011) that shows a major gap between men and women in top managers' position. The present study also attempts to shed light on how QWL and organizational socialization play a role in explaining the gender disparity effect on job satisfaction. The study tests the hypothesis that the relationship between gender and job satisfaction is mediated by QWL in that female managers are likely to feel that their lower-order needs are not sufficiently met through organizational resources, compared to male managers. Our results provide support of this hypothesis consistent with previous research that has linked QWL with job satisfaction (Anbarasan and Mehta, 2010, Cascio, 1998, Chan and Wyatt, 2007, Koonmee et al., 2010, Sirgy et al., 2001, Sirgy et al., 2008 and Valentine, 2010). The study also tests the hypothesis that the mediating effect of QWL is moderated by culture in that Asian female managers experience less lower-order QWL than Asian male managers; and that this difference is not as evident between Western male and female managers. The study findings provide support for these expectations. The data show that Thai female managers experience significantly less lower-order QWL than Thai male managers. This finding is consistent with much of the cross-cultural research suggesting that there is gender disparity in pay in Asian countries (Koonmee et al., 2010, Lavanna, 2008, O'Neil et al., 2008, Petchsod, 2010, Siengthai and Leelakulthanit, 1994, Soisakul, 2001 and Songphra, 2003). Given that the relationship between gender and job satisfaction is mediated by QWL, organizations should try to improve QWL, especially for female managers because doing so will have a positive impact on their job satisfaction. Our recommendation is especially crucial for Asian countries like Thailand, particularly regarding lower-order QWL because, based on our finding, Thai female managers tend to experience significantly less lower-order QWL than their Thai male counterparts. What is most interesting, however, is the distinction between lower- and higher-order QWL. The authors did not expect a gender disparity in higher-order QWL. Our findings reveal a culture main effect in favor of Asian cultures, suggesting that Thai managers experience greater higher-order QWL than U.S. managers, regardless of gender. One explanation is that Asian businesses tend to be managed more or less like a family business. Family businesses tend to be more rewarding with respect to higher-order needs such as social and esteem needs (Singhapakdi et al., 2010). Future research should investigate this hypothesis closely. With respect to the mediating effect of organizational socialization, the study findings provided some support for the hypothesis that female business executives are not as well socialized (organizationally speaking) as male executives, which may account for the differences in job satisfaction. This finding is consistent with much of the research on gender disparity in organizational socialization (e.g., Barnett and Karson, 1989, Chusmir and Mills, 1989, Gilligan, 1982, Javidan et al., 1995 and Smith and Rogers, 2000). The study findings also supports organizational socialization theory (Bauer et al., 1998 and Bauer et al., 2007) suggesting that those who are better socialized within the organization are likely to feel more satisfied with their jobs than those who are not. The study also tests the hypothesis that the relationship between gender and organizational socialization is moderated by culture in that Asian female managers are likely to experience less organizational socialization compared to Asian managers, but this gender disparity is not likely to be evident in relation to Western managers. The study provides directional (not statistical) support for this hypothesis. Gender differences in socialization in the U.S. sample seem negligible (as hypothesized) but are more evident in the Thai sample (again as hypothesized). Perhaps with a larger sample size, the data may lend more support to this hypothesis. Future research should pursue this possibility. Nevertheless, note that the directional support obtained here is consistent with the notion that female managers experience the glass ceiling more so than male, and this phenomenon may be exacerbated in Asian cultures. Asian business culture remains highly conservative (Siengthai and Leelakulthanit, 1994 and Wongtada et al., 2006). Given the significant gender disparity in socialization in Thai organizations and the significant role of socialization on job satisfaction as found in this research, organizations in Thailand or similar countries should try to design its work environment to help foster more socialization among their female managers. Future research is also encouraged to ensure that these findings are not confounded by the sampling/data collection methods used in this study. This research used different data collection methods with a mail survey in Thailand and a web-based survey in the U.S. Although mail surveys are common in Thailand, and web-based surveys are becoming common in the U.S., it is possible that the results could be confounded due to the difference in data collection methods. Any gender disparity differences noted between Thai and American managers (in relation to QWL, socialization, and job satisfaction) may have been due to the differences in the data collection method rather than cultural and/or level of economic development of the two countries. Future research should, therefore, replicate these findings using matched data collection methods. Furthermore, the study samples from both the U.S. and Thailand are small and limited to marketing managers working in larger firms. Therefore, the results may not be generalizable across all employees in both the U.S. and Thailand. Future research should test the robustness of these findings through replication with large-scale surveys and samples that are demonstrably representative of the marketing manager population in both countries. This study also compared gender disparity involving organizational socialization, QWL, and job satisfaction between the U.S. and Thailand—two very different countries in terms of culture and level of economic development. The authors drew on concepts such as social liberalization, gender–role expectation, and degree of feminist movement. Although the authors believe the U.S. and Thailand are good exemplars for these different concepts, they were not measured directly. The variable “country” is treated as a proxy measure of these concepts. As a result, the authors cannot be certain that these concepts are true explanatory factors of these findings. Therefore, future research should replicate the findings within this study by measuring these concepts directly (along with other gender-related and occupation-related factors previously mentioned). As this study measure of organizational socialization is based on managers' perception, social desirability bias can be a threat to the validity of the measure. Future studies should include the measure of social desirability to control the effect. In addition, this study tests the model at one point in time. Since social expectations on women's role evolve over time, one can argue that the effects of gender on QWL change over time. Future studies should examine the changes through a longitudinal study.