تاثیر مسئولیت اجتماعی شرکت ها بر اعتماد کارکنان کازینو سازمانی، رضایت شغلی، و مشتری مداری : بررسی تجربی از استراتژی های شرط بندی مسئول
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6193||2013||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7270 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 33, June 2013, Pages 406–415
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has emerged as a critical philosophy and a strategy that affects both internal (i.e., employee) and external (i.e., customer) attitudes. The importance of CSR extends to the casino industry, especially when it pertains to compulsory and supplementary responsible gambling (RG) strategies. To this end, this study surveys casino employees in South Korea to examine the impact of CSR on casino employees’ organizational trust, job satisfaction, and customer orientation. Results indicate that legal CSR and supplementary RG have a positive effect on organizational trust, whereas compulsory RG strategies have a negative effect on organizational trust. Also, it appears that organizational trust positively influences job satisfaction, which in turn has a positive effect on customer orientation. In building off of these findings, this study provides practical implications for casino managers when implementing CSR and RG strategies
During recent years, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become a critical consideration for businesses and academics alike. Today, many companies consider CSR an important corporate strategy for achieving a competitive advantage (Kim et al., 2012 and Weber, 2008). According to stakeholder theory (Freeman, 1984), CSR strategies benefit a company or organization by satisfying major interests of the company's various stakeholders (which include consumers, employees, government, and shareholders). Hence, investigating the effects of CSR strategies on stakeholder attitudes constitutes a worthy direction for academic research. According to Carroll's (1979) social performance model, CSR contains four dimensions: economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic. The economic dimension refers to a company's economic obligations to stakeholders (e.g., to be profitable), while the legal dimension relates to the legal compliance required of companies. The ethical dimension refers to expected activities a company performs as a member of society – excluding those which are legally bound by statutes. Finally, the philanthropic dimension addresses companies’ voluntary activities to improve human welfare (e.g., donations and volunteerism) (Carroll, 1979). While much of the CSR research focuses on the relationship between CSR activities and external customers (Brown and Dacin, 1997, Kang et al., 2010, Klein and Dawar, 2004 and Lee and Park, 2009), relatively few studies examine the impact of CSR from the perspective of employees as internal customers ( Chiang, 2010 and Lee et al., in press). This is unfortunate, as employees are not only a major stakeholder group (McWilliams and Siegel, 2001), but they also play a crucial interactive, frontline role in affecting customers’ experiences in hospitality settings (Dawson and Abbott, 2009). Within this context, creating and maintaining long-term company value depend heavily upon fulfilling employees’ expectations (Hillman and Keim, 2001). What is more, a company can achieve a sustainable competitive advantage when they retain highly skilled employees, and CSR can contribute positively to retention (Lado and Wilson, 1994 and Wright et al., 1995). For instance, Chiang (2010) asserted that CSR is a useful strategy for efficiently managing human resources by improving organizational trust, job satisfaction, and customer orientation. According to Tuzzolino and Armandi (1981), management can instill positive attitudes toward work, encourage greater productivity, and improve customer interactions by satisfying employees’ expectations for company's CSR activities. Although CSR typically incorporates the four dimensions outlined by Carroll (1979), unique characteristics of a given industry can affect appropriate manifestations of CSR. Casino companies, for instance, possess some idiosyncratic characteristics when it comes to CSR: they generate positive socio-economic impacts, but they also can contribute to negative impacts due to the challenges posed by problem gambling (Lee et al., 2009). To minimize negative social impacts associated with problem gambling, many casino companies have implemented responsible gambling (RG) strategies, including employee training, self-exclusion, and/or self-limitation policies (Song et al., 2012a). Hence RG strategies often fit within a broader CSR strategy for casino companies, which typically require community (and government) approval to operate in the first place. As a result, we might argue that CSR (and RG) approaches take on additional importance in the gaming industry, as other hospitality industries (indeed, other industries) do not require such an explicit and rigorously investigated license to operate. Although research on RG has been done in the past (e.g., Blaszczynski et al., 2004, Hing, 2004, McCain et al., 2009, Monaghan, 2009 and Song et al., 2012a), relatively little research has explored how the dynamics of broader CSR strategies including RG affect casino employees. This article addresses this shortcoming by investigating the impact of CSR and RG strategies on organizational trust, job satisfaction, and customer orientation from the perspective of casino employees. To accomplish this objective, this study adopts multi-dimensional measurements of CSR based on Carroll's social performance framework (Carroll, 1979), as well as a distinctive measurement of RG based on Song et al.’s approach (2012a). The results of this study will shed light on the most relevant and influential dimensions of CSR, as well as the impact of these dimensions on casino employees’ attitudes toward their organization and customers.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
As the importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) currently continues to grow, a better understanding of CSR strategy's relationship to various aspects of a company becomes critical. Although the CSR literature has paid substantial attention to the relationship between CSR strategy and external customers, less attention has been paid to internal customers (i.e., employees), especially in the context of the casino industry. This study, therefore, mainly explores the relationship between CSR strategies (primarily RG strategies) and internal marketing perspectives on casino employees. A casino represents a unique and interesting setting for this study. First, the importance of employees for casinos is significant. Not only do employees constitute a major group of stakeholders, but they also play a particularly important role in affecting customers’ experiences due to their close interactions with customers (Dawson and Abbott, 2009). Second, many casinos commonly practice an industry-specific strategy called responsible gambling (RG), which closely resembles the ethical CSR dimension from Carroll's CSR framework (Carroll, 1991). This study incorporates the RG concept into the CSR framework by substituting the ethical CSR dimension with RG strategies (specifically, compulsory and supplementary RG strategies), and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to consider this link in the CSR literature. Consequently, the current study contributes, uniquely, to both the literature and the industry. More specifically, this study examines the perceptions of casinos employees on CSR and RG strategies as they influence organizational trust and attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and customer orientation). Results indicate that the legal CSR dimension has a significant effect on organizational trust, while the economic and philanthropic CSR dimensions have an insignificant effect. When examining the two dimensions of the RG concept, this study finds a positive effect from supplementary RG, but a negative effect from compulsory RG on employees’ organizational trust. Interestingly, these findings are inconsistent with a previous hospitality study's findings in the foodservice industry: Lee et al. (in press) found a significant and positive effect from economic and philanthropic CSR dimensions, but an insignificant effect from legal and ethical CSR dimensions on employees’ organizational trust. The insignificant relationship between economic CSR and organizational trust may suggest that the economic imperative – to derive profits for stakeholders – is less important to casino employees, perhaps because excessive profit-seeking in this setting may be seen as distasteful. Or perhaps casino employees in this monopolistic setting accept profitability as assured, and hence value it less. As for the insignificant relationship between philanthropic CSR and organizational trust, perhaps casino employees deem these insincere or insufficient, especially in an industry that receives significant attention in South Korea for its negative impacts. The significant relationship between legal CSR and organizational trust suggests that this casino's compliance with the casino laws and regulations influences its employees’ organizational trust in a positive manner. This finding may imply that casino employees want their company to be perceived as legitimate (and certainly not illegal), because gambling often suffers from perceptions of its illegitimacy. Hence, the modern, regulated gaming industry's emphasis on strict compliance and the rule of law may alleviate employees’ concerns that they work in a less than respected industry, especially when media reports and anti-gambling groups frequently emphasize the downsides of casinos (Bernhard et al., 2010). In one of the more revealing findings about RG, these results indicate that supplementary RG (SRG) activities have a positive effect – while compulsory RG (CRG) activities have a negative effect – on casino employees’ organizational trust. Put another way, those RG activities that were mandated by government (CRS) led to negative evaluations, while those RG activities that were voluntary and supplementary (SRS) led to positive evaluations. This finding is actually consistent with a recent study on how certain RG measures are perceived by customers – with customers preferring those measures that were voluntary rather than required (Bernhard et al., 2008). It could be that similarly, employees chafe a bit under the mandatory requirements, but take pride in those RG measures that the casino undertakes beyond those that the government mandates. Since CRG strategies are negatively perceived by casino employees, casino management might strive to address employees’ negative perceptions. For instance, Giroux et al. (2008) found training sessions to be quite helpful in encouraging employees to change their attitudes about RG. Similarly, Blaszczynski et al. (2011) and LaPlante et al. (2012) emphasize the importance of staff training programs that encourage a positive embrace of RG, and find empirical support suggesting that these sessions can be effective. These training programs might focus on the long-term positive effects of CRG for sustainability – as proper RG measures will help ensure both customer wellbeing and community acceptance. It also fits well within a broader customer relations strategy; as the casino industry is a hospitality industry that focuses on entertainment, and as hospitality employees are caretakers of that entertainment experience, RG might be positioned as another important exercise in ensuring customer satisfaction. As Giroux et al. (2008) suggest, RG education and training programs should be not provided as one-time events, but as regular sessions that become an expected component of employees’ continuing education as hospitality professionals. Furthermore, reinforcing information might be provided with additional information in the form of posters, brochures, and videos (Giroux et al., 2008). Results of the remaining hypotheses tests demonstrate that organizational trust has a significant positive effect on job satisfaction, which, in turn, positively influences employees’ customer orientation. These findings suggest that casino managers can encourage positive work attitudes in employees by creating a trustworthy atmosphere based on CSR and RG strategies. These findings are consistent with the literature: as we have noted, positive attitudes of employees are important for achieving competitive advantages (Wan, 2010 and Back et al., 2011). In addition, customer orientation directly relates to customers’ evaluations (Brady and Cronin, 2001) and is an essential feature of good service (Chow et al., 2006).