برون سپاری حمل و نقل روستایی مدرسه: هندبوک برزیل برای عمل در سطح شهری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6194||2010||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5550 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Research in Transportation Economics, Volume 29, Issue 1, 2010, Pages 312–318
In Brazil, Rural School Transportation (RST) falls under the responsibility of state and municipal governments. However, there are no clear rules to guide the provision of this essential service. RST in Brazil is characterised by inefficient contracting practices, poor service control by school administration, and lack of legal instruments to penalise poor services, thus allowing operators to run services according to their own commercial criteria. In addition, payment is low, leading to the employment of old vehicles, lack of safety equipment, and non-convenient routes, among other aspects. As a result, school children provided with this service are subject to long travel time over large distances, and irregular and late services, coupled with poorly maintained roads. When children finally arrive at school they are tired, which often negatively affects their school performance and attendance, contributing to early school drop-out. In order to contribute to the improvement of school transportation quality, state and municipal authorities must develop the required organisational, planning, and regulatory skills. Accordingly, this article addresses the elements and the structure of a handbook that is being elaborated for local governments.