تصمیم گیری برون سپاری در سطح بنگاه : مدل فرایند تحلیل شبکه ای مبتنی بر کارت امتیازی متوازن
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6200||2013||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8220 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Available online 18 April 2013
We combine the Analytic Network Process (ANP) and the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to build a cohesive decision model for determining firm level IT outsourcing strategy. Although prior research has confirmed the existence of interactions among BSC indicators and the potential impact of those interactions on firm level performance, interactions have hitherto not been fully understood and implemented, due to lack of adequate tools. In this paper, we take advantage of the strength of the ANP technique to address the interaction issues between indicators when applying the BSC. The ANP establishes the interactions among the indicators, prioritizes the indicators under the four BSC perspectives, and then identifies the best outsourcing strategy through synthesis. A case company is used to study the feasibility of our approach at firm level outsourcing decision making. Finally, we examine the robustness of the model through sensitivity analysis, and demonstrate the importance of incorporating indicator interactions when operationalizing BSC. Managerial insights and implications derived through model analysis are discussed.
Beginning with Kodak’s 1989 contract with IBM (Applegate and Montealegre, 1991), IT outsourcing has grown steadily as a strategic IT management option. During this period, the pressure of globalization, rapid technological evolution, and the necessity for cost reduction have motivated if not compelled companies to turn to outsourcing. In the early 1990s, the two primary objectives for IT outsourcing were cost savings and technical efficiency. Today, the number of outsourcing objectives has increased along with their significance to the firm and, as a result, outsourcing has become a strategic option for firms seeking to improve their overall business performance (Lee et al., 2003). Dahlberg and Nyrhinen (2006) pointed out that in the current environment, outsourcing objectives are not only economic, but also strategic (e.g., aligning IT with corporate objectives and focusing on the core business), technological (e.g., ensuring the availability of technology and technology skills, and standardizing hardware, software and business processes), and social (e.g., improving the quality and availability of services, as well as user satisfaction). In a broader sense, outsourcing allows firms to develop alliances, to keep pace with technology advancement, to expand their IT infrastructure, and to extend the reach of their operations. A strategic focus is also required in order to manage the inherent risks associated with outsourcing (Osei-Bryson and Ngwenyama, 2006). Strategic factors that can put the client at risk include specialization of the product and/or vendor, uncertainty of the business environment, interdependence between client and vendor business processes, and the level of client and vendor expertise with both the IT operation and outsourcing in general (Bahlia and Rivard, 2005). In light of these risk elements, a successful firm should understand and prioritize its objectives, set specific and obtainable goals, select the right vendor(s), and negotiate an enforceable contract with vendor(s) (Chen and Bharadwaj, 2009, Corbett, 2004 and Domberger, 1998). In daily operations, the firm should engage in effective communications and monitoring in pursuit of successful vendor relationships management. Toward this end, management requires a structured approach that considers the elements of decision making involved in the outsourcing process: i.e., the objectives sought through outsourcing, the associated benefits and costs, and the set of financial and non-financial concerns for making outsourcing decisions in specific situations. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) method provides such elements within a framework that assesses strategic performance. The Analytic Network Process (ANP), in turn, provides a structure and process that guide the decision maker in weighing the various criteria and choosing actions intended to achieve the stated objectives. In this paper, we focus on outsourcing issue and employ the combined BSC and ANP model. We show how a BSC-based ANP model is useful in identifying the optimal strategy, and how important managerial insights may be derived by exploiting sensitivity analyses of the model.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
It is important to note that there exist some limitations to the proposed BSC-ANP model, due the inherent limitation of ANP and BSC. First, because the BSC approach does not guarantee the inclusion of every measure in all of the dimensions, the final selection of measures that are included is left to the decision maker, and therefore the model’s structure might not be complete in a mathematical sense. Second, while the results produced by the model should be validated, validation in this context is a mixture of replication, satisfaction, and non-falsity of the conditions, as opposed to a mathematical proof of optimality as is typical of an OR model. In the absence of a gold-standard basis for comparison, the decision maker cannot be presented with a guarantee that the strategy identified by the model is superior to all of the available alternatives. Notwithstanding these limitations, our combination of ANP and BSC offers a number of distinct advantages over other methods and models. The BSC complements the ANP by providing a framework to ensure that all important criteria are examined, and all relevant criteria are included in the outsourcing decision model. The ANP provides a convenient means of including BSC indicator interactions and prioritizing the BSC indicators. As a result, the combined BSC-ANP approach supports the decision maker in a number of ways, including: • Establishing relationships between and within different dimensions, • measuring the strengths of those relationships and interactions, • determining the overall impact of different dimensions and individual elements of a dimension on the strategies studied, • deriving priorities for the dimensions, the components of the dimensions, and the strategies considered, • allocating resources according to those priorities, and • assessing the sensitivity of strategy priorities to changes in the priorities of the dimensions and their components. In this paper, we showed how the Balanced Scorecard can be operationalized to serve as a basis for a firm’s strategic IT outsourcing policy decisions. The framework of the balanced scorecard captures and interrelates different perspectives and indicator measures, providing a comprehensive view of the firm for strategic analysis. The Analytical Network Process provides a proven way of eliciting and quantifying the relationships necessary to actually use the BSC. The ANP is particularly important for estimating the values for the interactions in the BSC model. Using the actual problems faced by the case firm, we demonstrated the feasibility and usefulness of the combined BSC–ANP approach, as well as the importance and consequence of incorporating the interaction terms in the decision making process.