تجزیه و تحلیل مرزهای مصرف انرژی و برنامه های کاربردی آن برای شبکه مبتنی بر شبکه های حسگر بی سیم
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|6324||2013||8 صفحه PDF||23 صفحه WORD|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Network and Computer Applications, Volume 36, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages 444–451
Grid based wireless sensor networks have the advantages of dynamic topology configuration and flexible selection of forwarding paths. However, like other schemes, the energy management of electronic device is a very important issue when the lifespan of the network is critical. The energy consumption of a grid based network depends on the topology of the grid as well as the actual forwarding path. In this paper, we analyze the upper and lower bounds of the transmission energy costs for grid based wireless sensor networks. The results are applicable for evaluation of the effectiveness of grid construction scheme and the routing efficiency of grid based networks. In order to illustrate the applications of the derived results, we proposed an example of topology combination approach to evaluate efficiency with respect to the derived lower bound. Experiments were conducted to verify the validity of the derived bounds and evaluate the energy consumption of the multiple sources forwarding through topology combination.
Wireless sensor networks are recognized as a convincible technology for the provisioning of environment sensing over wide geographic areas by means of small electronic devices (sensor nodes) (Biswas and Phoha, 2006, Chintalapudi et al., 2006, Boukerche et al., 2009 and Ma et al., 2011). Typical applications of sensor networks include detection systems for security, military surveillance, target tracking, and others. In the deployment of a sensor network, a number of sensor nodes are distributed over an area and communicate with each other wirelessly. The query message is broadcast by the base station (or the sink node) to all sensor nodes regarding a specific interest. Information sensed by sensor nodes is forwarded to the sink node for further processing. Basically, the sensor consumes energy for event sensing, data processing, and data transmission. Among them, energy consumed for data transmission heavily depends on the routing efficiency. Therefore, it is the purpose of this paper to analyze the energy required for data transmission in wireless sensor networks. Because sensor nodes have limited access to power, energy consumption is one of the most important issues for the deployment of wireless sensor networks. If each sensor node transmitted its information to the sink node directly, it could very quickly exhaust its energy and drop out of service, at which point the sensor network would become disconnected and fragmented. It has been determined that direct transmission schemes are beneficial only when the sensor network is confined to a limited area (Ma et al., 2011, Liu and Lin, 2003 and Heinzelman et al., 2000). For this reason, the low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) method was proposed (Heinzelman et al., 2000 and Handy et al., 2002). In the LEACH approach, packets are transmitted in a multi-hop manner to evenly distribute the consumption of energy among nodes, thereby lengthening the life span of the sensor network. In this manner, each node can control its coverage by adjusting its transmission energy to self organize a network topology. The topology of sensor networks can be dynamically changed in accordance with the locations of sensor nodes and sink nodes. The selection of the intermediate nodes for the path of information forwarding from a sensor node to its sink node is determined not only to find the shortest distance but also in consideration of the residual energy of the intermediate nodes. If a routing path is improperly selected, a number of nodes may completely exhaust their energy supplies.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Energy management is a critical issue in the design of sensing devices and the deployment of wireless sensor networks. Although energy consumption depends on the construction of the topologies and the selection of the forwarding paths, the bounds of energy consumption are a useful reference for the evaluation of power control in the deployment of sensor networks. In a grid based network, the selection of grid nodes and routing algorithm influence energy consumption. In this paper, the ideal distance and bounds of energy consumptions for information forwarding in a grid based sensor network were derived and analyzed, and the analytical results were examined through exhaustive simulations. The values of the maximum and the minimum energy consumption during the simulations were recorded to verify with the derived upper and lower bounds. The results of our experiments verified the validity of the proposed energy consumption bounds. It was mentioned that data transmission consumes approximate 80% energy of the sensor node (Sacaleanu et al., 2011), therefore, the bounds derived in this paper could be applied as a measurement criterion to evaluate the energy efficiency of data transmission. In order to illustrate the application of the derived bound, we investigated multiple sources issue and proposed a topology combination approach to reduce energy consumption. We compared and discussed the simulation results with the summation of the individual lower bounds. These results indicate that the derived bounds are suitable for the evaluation of data routing efficiency in grid based networks.