ارزیابی تاثیر دستگاه های بازخورد مصرف انرژی در استفاده از انرژی داخلی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6357||2013||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4114 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Applied Energy, Volume 106, June 2013, Pages 314–320
Household energy accounts for one of the major contributors to the countries energy balances. It has been shown, that an effective way to achieve energy saving in that sector, is by providing consumers with information and feedback. This measure increases home inhabitants’ awareness that leads to behavioral changes, and could help reduce energy consumption between 15% and 25% in some cases. Inhabitants’ energy use awareness is also crucial for the success of demand response programs; one of the most important features of smart-grid adoption for the current and upcoming smart cities. The effects of different feedback strategies and information devices in households located in different cities in Sweden have been evaluated in this paper, since the impact on users’ behavior of this feedback information vary depending on the way it is provided. Mobile text messages (SMSs) and digital displays placed in the building’s common areas did not cause any noticeable behavioral changes, while the use of a TV channel and personal in-home displays were the most popular devices amongst households with high incomes. This paper concluded that even though feedback helped reduce domestic energy consumption and induce behavioral changes, it only reaches the consumers interested in it. It is important therefore to provide customized information to the consumer and select precise feedback tools for specific household groups. Special attention should be paid to increasing the energy consumption awareness in households with low income levels.
Europe consumed 3170 TW h of electricity in 2008; 54% from burning fossil fuels, but what is more important, most of these fuels were imported (83.5% oil and 64.2% gas), increasing the supply dependency of the European Union . Households alone, account for more than a quarter of the EU’s total energy consumption. If all the office buildings’ energy consumption is included, the building sector accounts for 40% of the total energy consumption in the Union . In Sweden, the final use of electricity in 2009 reached 125 TW h of which the residential and services sector (formed by residential and commercial premises, holiday homes and land use) used 73 TW h, almost 60% of the total consumption. The total energy use in the sector was 149 TW h (residential buildings and commercial premises accounting for 87%) or 39% of Sweden’s total final energy use . Increasing domestic energy demand is transforming the households sector into one of the major contributors to the country’s energy balances. Some forecasts show that in the near future, domestic energy consumption will exceed 40% of the total yearly consumption . Large consumption differences found in buildings with similar characteristics (same number of occupants, same buildings’ properties, similar income levels, etc.) confirm the strong influence that occupants’ behavior has on the energy use . Despite some prognostics showing stabilized levels of electricity consumption due to increased efficiency in domestic appliances, consumption is growing due to the intensive use of appliances together with a population on the rise .
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper presents the influence of several visualization devices (common display, in-home display, SMS and TV channel) on domestic energy consumption. Keeping consumers interested in energy related questions, and increase their awareness whilst creating long-lasting behavioral changes is a task that requires data management that results in providing feedback information that is specifically adapted to the households’ characteristics in order to make it relevant for end users. Consumers’ preferences should be taken into account when choosing the method for consumption information delivery. Additionally, it is important to identify households with larger savings potential during the early stages of these types of studies. For instance, in the present work, households from group II had the lowest consumption of all the groups, and consequently, the lowest potential for improved reduction. The use of energy information feedback devices in groups of households where consumption is already low (such as the ones where common and in-home display, SMS and letter were used), might in some cases, cause the opposite effect: when realizing that they consume less, occupants give less importance to their behavior impact on electricity consumption. The TV channel used in the present study, rose great interest amongst consumers who were especially interested in the energy consumption feedback provided together with other types of information and could be an effective way of providing feedback. Another advantage is that it is also a good way to make consumers learn more about the consumption of their appliances, in the same way as the in-home displays would. However, only people interested in their energy consumption would go to the specific channel while the in-home displays are easier to observe (especially when located in central locations inside the household-hall, kitchen, etc.).