تاثیر اقامتگاه های شهری در مصرف انرژی و انتشار کربن : تحقیق در نانجینگ، چین
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6362||2013||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 7, July 2013, Pages 52–61
This paper analysed the energy consumption of urban households in Nanjing and the influencing factors in this energy consumption. The households studied were located in three urban districts of Nanjing: the city centre, a spontaneous residential area around the old city, and a planned satellite town. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on building characteristics, household characteristics, use of domestic appliances, and fuel oil consumption. Energy use was analysed by conversion into CO2 emissions. The study found that household use and transport were the two main contributors to domestic energy consumption. Household electricity consumption showed obvious seasonal characteristics (higher in summer than in other seasons), while transport energy consumption showed geographical characteristics (the old town had lowest transport energy consumption). Highly efficient devices may not render buildings more energy-efficient, so architects should seek to reduce the need for such devices. Energy consumption and income were generally positively correlated. Family structure also influenced energy consumption, with high-income families and small families consuming more energy per capita. Economic and social factors were found to be equally important to technical factors for energy efficiency. Based on the findings, some possible policies are recommended.
Sustainable strategies for energy can be considered from two sides – energy production and consumption. Fig. 1 shows that from the production side, the focus is on alternatives to fossil fuel, while on the consumption side the focus is on energy efficiency. The strategies from energy producers are more influential than those dealing with energy consumption, because energy providers are much more centralised compared with thousands of consumers. However, there are two reasons why we cannot overlook energy efficiency in energy consumption. One is that existing technologies for renewable energy are not yet sufficiently economically efficient, which prevents them from replacing fossil fuels. It is impossible to generate enough energy by solar technology at the local site in Asia's high-density cities (Close, 1996). Another reason is that the amount of energy produced is determined by energy demands. Thus the effect of reducing energy demands is marked in terms of carbon emissions reduction, especially in the coming decades.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study in Nanjing revealed that household use and transport were the two main contributors to domestic energy consumption in the city. Household electricity consumption showed obvious seasonal characteristics, being higher in summer than in the other three seasons. Transport energy consumption showed geographical characteristics, with the old town nearest the business area having the lowest transport energy consumption. Household devices with a high coefficient of performance (COP) did not make buildings more energy-efficient, so architectural design should seek to reduce the use of such devices. Energy consumption generally increased with increasing income, especially at lower levels. Family structure also influenced energy consumption, with high-income families and small families consuming more energy per capita. The results showed that economic and social factors were equally important to technical factors for energy efficiency. Based on the findings above and considering sust