از مدیریت شغلی هتل به رضایت شغلی کارکنان : اثر واسطه ای صلاحیت شغلی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6378||2012||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7370 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 31, Issue 1, March 2012, Pages 76–85
The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between perceived hotel career management, career competency, and career satisfaction. It also aims to examine the mediating processes through which hotel career management contribute to employees’ career satisfaction. Results from structural equation modeling (SEM) show that career competency mediates the effects of three dimensions of hotel career management (career appraisal, career development, and career training) on career satisfaction. The article concludes with implications for theory development and management practice.
Attracting and retaining qualified talent is a major issue in the hospitality industry today. Over the past three decades, China has experienced the rapid and steady development of its hospitality industry. In response to the fast increases in the numbers of inbound and domestic tourists, China's hotel industry has expanded significantly. This rapid development has led to an increasing demand for high-quality hotel staff. However, hotels in China are encountering many problems in recruiting and retaining the best talent (Gu et al., 2006). As career development is an effective way of retaining and developing staff, it is important for hotels in China to practice effective career management. Career development aims to achieve gradual improvement by operating in harmony with efforts to enhance employees’ career competency. According to Arthur et al. (1995), personal competency reflects different forms of knowing, and intelligent careers reflect the application of these forms of knowing. They categorize career competency into three types: “knowing why”, “knowing whom”, and “knowing how”. The first relates to career motivation, personal meaning, and identification; the second concerns career-relevant networks and contacts; and the third involves career-relevant skills and job-related knowledge. Enhancing employees’ career competency requires a cooperative relationship between hotel managers and hotel employees. From the employee perspective, successful career management emphasizes the possession of the requisite personal qualities, and thus career competency has become increasingly important (Arthur et al., 1999). From the hotel perspective, helping staff to develop their own careers and improving their career satisfaction is an effective means of attracting and retaining qualified staff members (Barnett and Bradley, 2007 and Wong et al., 1999). Nowadays, most organizations work as enablers in the career management system by supporting employees’ career development (Baruch, 2006). Effective hotel career management can contribute to the development of employees’ career competency, thereby improving their career satisfaction. It would thus be useful to explore the mediating effect of career competency on the relationship between hotel career management and career satisfaction.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study developed a novel conceptual framework for understanding the partial mediating effect of career competency on the relationship between perceived hotel career management and career satisfaction. Hotel career management can directly influence employee career satisfaction. At the same time, it can also influence career satisfaction by enhancing career competency. Organizations can enhance employees’ career competency by promoting career management activities such as training and development programs (Sullivan et al., 1998), co-learning between coworkers (Hall and Mirvis, 1996), developmental assignments (Seibert, 1996), on-line Internet training, and career assessment (Baruch, 2003). All of the above activities help employees to remain marketable and up to date knowledge of current industry developments. Employees with a high level of marketability and current knowledge are likely to perceive high level of career satisfaction. Hence, effective career management increases employees’ competitive competency and career satisfaction, it can also contribute to the development of the competency of the firm as a whole and its host industry (Arthur et al., 1999 and DeFillippi and Arthur, 1994). Clearly, it is important for hotels to support employees to improve their career competency and to achieve higher career satisfaction. The findings of this study provide strong evidence to support the proposed structural model and the posited relationships. To summarize, perceived hotel career management has a positive, direct effect on career competency; career competency has a positive, direct effect on career satisfaction; career appraisal, career development, and career training each has a positive, direct effect on career satisfaction; and career competency mediates the relationship between three dimensions of perceived hotel career management (career appraisal, career development, and career training) and career satisfaction. Of the three dimensions of perceived hotel career management, career training contributes the most to career competency, followed by career appraisal and career development. These findings are consistent with those of previous research (Kong et al., 2010), and they further highlight the importance of career training in the hotel industry in China (Kong and Baum, 2006). As career training plays an important role in career competency, it should be offered together with other career development activities to address the long-term career aspirations of employees. Career appraisal is also positively related to career satisfaction. This is probably because hotels in China have relatively comprehensive appraisal systems and use performance appraisal as a basis for employee career planning and further promotion (Kong et al., 2010). As career counseling by managers and mentoring are also positively related to skill development among employees (Chao et al., 1992 and Williams et al., 2009), these activities should be considered when evaluating the potential of present or future managers. Career development activities are also significantly related to career competency. This provides support for the positive effect of job rotation on skill enhancement (Azizi et al., 2010) and underlines the importance of specific career development practices, including job postings, job rotation, succession planning, dual ladders, and financial support. Compared with the other two dimensions, career development makes the smallest contribution to career competency. However, as career development is one of the powerful motivators of hotel employees (Wong et al., 1999), a systematic development system could help hotels in China to attract and retain qualified hotel staff. Career appraisal makes the greatest contribution to career satisfaction, followed by career development and career training. This is probably because career appraisal is a valid and reliable tool for career planning, and career advice and mentoring provide useful information for career development (Baruch, 2003). Employees who discuss their careers more often by engaging in mentoring will receive more feedback which can give directions to future, and thus achieve higher levels of career satisfaction (Chao et al., 1992, Murphy and Ensher, 2001 and Uhl-Bien and Green, 1998). Consistent with previous studies (Barnett and Bradley, 2007), this study further confirms the important role of career appraisal in improving career satisfaction. This finding also highlights the importance of formal and informal mentoring, including career advice, career discussion, and clear work feedback, induction, and 360° performance appraisal. The positive relationships indicate that effective hotel career support can enhance employee career satisfaction. However, it is surprising to find career training contributes the least to career satisfaction. This result should be carefully interpreted by hotel managers. As employees are eager to be educated and empowered with further training (Kong and Baum, 2006), it is critical for hotels to offer a variety of training programs in addition to pre-job and on-the-job training. Most importantly, career competency has a direct influence on career satisfaction, it also mediates the relationship between the three dimensions of hotel career management (career appraisal, career development, and career training) and career satisfaction. This study presents a first step in empirical research on this topic, and provides initial evidence of the mediating effect of career competency. Building on the theory of Arthur et al. (1995), the findings reveal the importance of career competency and suggest that hotel managers will be better able to enhance their career competency to achieve higher career satisfaction when their career management is supported through hotel career activities such as mentoring, job rotation, and career appraisal. Both hotels and individual employees should thus adopt proactive and effective practices to improve career competency. Individuals need to be committed to their career and to navigate their own careers by identifying career goals, developing diverse networks, and engaging in continuous learning.