گذرگاهی به هند : مطالعه موردی دوگانه از فعالیت ها، فرآیندها و منابع برون سپاری خارجی خدمات پیشرفته
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|652||2012||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of World Business, Volume 47, Issue 2, April 2012, Pages 311–326
Research has shown that offshore outsourcing processes may influence the behavior and strategic choices of firms, but little is known about the determining factors that influence the evolution and outcomes of those processes. Furthermore, longitudinal studies able to generate such insights are lacking. This paper suggests a detailed, activity-based approach to the study of the process of offshore outsourcing of high-value, advanced service activities. While earlier research has considered either firm-internal or firm-external sources of resource building, this study offers a more comprehensive theoretical model that combines resource-based theory and international business network theory. It aims to investigate how determinants of the offshore outsourcing process contribute to the resource stocks of client firms. Based on two longitudinal case studies of offshore outsourcing to India, the study finds that offshore outsourcing operations, in general, make positive contributions to the resource stocks of client firms. Some determinants contribute to the building of resources (partnership commitment decisions, knowledge creation and learning, trust building, the interconnectedness of resources) while others impede resource building (time compression diseconomies, lack of resource mass efficiencies). Notably, the interconnectedness among onshore activities, offshore activities and the underpinning knowledge resources reduces the risk of erosion of client firm resources, although this remains a long-term risk.
Much has been written in academic journals about firms’ motives for offshore outsourcing of services, and the potential benefits and risks for firms and nations arising from the relocation of business activities to offshore destinations. We know very little, however, about the operational processes that take place between client firms, located in high-cost countries, and their service providers, which in many cases are located in emerging economies with lower cost structures. Such processes are crucial, as they influence the outcomes of offshore outsourcing partnerships on both ends. In a book on international and domestic outsourcing, Mol (2007) argues that the academic literature largely ignores the relationship between process and outcomes: “In other words, scholars examine whether today's outsourcing levels are somehow related to today's performance levels. That, however, neglects the very real possibility that it may take time for outsourcing levels and outsourcing processes to run their course … some costs and benefits of outsourcing may emerge long after an initial decision is taken” (Mol, 2007, p. 51–52). This gap in the literature is particularly pronounced for the offshore outsourcing of services (Kenney, Massini, & Murtha, 2009). Although the offshore outsourcing of manufacturing activities has been a long-standing business practice and research area for years (e.g., Dunning and Lundan, 2008 and Vernon, 1966), the emergence and growth of services offshoring (i.e., sourcing to other units in the international firm) and offshore outsourcing (i.e., sourcing to external partners) has added a range of new aspects and questions to the field (Doh, 2005, Graf and Mudambi, 2005 and Kotabe and Murray, 2004). Previous studies of offshoring and outsourcing processes have focused on the various stages in the evolution of the offshoring/outsourcing strategy and operations (e.g., Bozarth et al., 1998 and Carmel and Agarwal, 2002), or on outsourcing in the domestic context. However, the determining factors that influence the evolution and outcomes of the offshoring/offshore outsourcing process are not clear (Hätönen and Eriksson, 2009 and Kenney et al., 2009). Previous studies convincingly argue that process factors, such as accumulated learning and experience with domestic and international sourcing, play a role in firm behavior and strategic choices (Lewin and Couto, 2007, Lewin and Peeters, 2006 and Maskell et al., 2007).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Contrary to mainstream research, this study takes a more detailed, activity-based approach to the study of the offshore outsourcing of high-value, advanced services. The theoretical framework of this study integrates the resource-based theory of the firm and international business network theory to investigate how a set of firm-related and partnership-related process determinants influence the evolution and outcomes of the offshore outsourcing process. The specific purpose of this study is to analyze whether and how the offshore outsourcing process influence the ex-post resource stock of home/client firms. The study provides support for the view that client firm resources may be accumulated in the offshore outsourcing process due to a set of process determinants. Moreover, the study contributes to the discussion on the potential for value creation in offshore outsourcing, and it disentangles the process to show that some determinants support, while others hinder, the building of home firm resources. Based on two longitudinal case studies of offshore outsourcing from Danish to Indian firms, the study finds that some determinants contribute to the building of resources (partnership commitment decisions, knowledge creation and learning, trust building, the interconnectedness of resources) while other determinants impede or slow resource building (time compression diseconomies, lack of resource mass efficiencies). Notably, the interconnectedness of onshore and offshore activities, and the underpinning knowledge resources reduce the risk of resource erosion. This may be seen as a managerial paradox. On one hand, the high degree of sticky knowledge associated with this type of activity makes offshore outsourcing cumbersome because of complex organizational arrangements, and high knowledge transfer and coordination costs. On the other hand, that stickiness necessitates and ensures the continued involvement of home firm specialists in offshore activities. This involvement may prevent gradual unlearning and, hence, the erosion of home firm knowledge resources. In one of the cases, a risk of future resource erosion appears to exist due to the continued delegation of content and process responsibility to the Indian firm, and the corresponding increasing dependency on the knowledge resources possessed by the Indian partner.