هیچ وقت نگران نباشید : رابطه بین نگرانی، ساختار زمان، و مدیریت زمان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6562||2003||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 35, Issue 5, October 2003, Pages 1119–1126
This study investigated the relationship between worry and time use among 130 undergraduate students. Participants were administered the Student Worry Scale (Davey et al., 1992), the Time Structure Questionnaire (Bond & Feather, 1988), and the Time Management Behavior Scale (Macan et al., 1990). Total TSQ scores and three of its factors (sense of purpose, present orientation, and persistence) were negatively related to worry. However, the TMB did not correlate with worry. The results were interpreted to indicate that perceptions of structure and purpose in time use, but not the use of actual time management behaviors, might be beneficial in decreasing worry.
Theoretical writings by Csikszentmihalyi (1990) suggest that occupying one's time with absorbing, interesting, and enjoyable activities can liberate psychological energy that might instead be “wasted on…worry” (p. 42). In other words, one who is engrossed in structured, enjoyable activities may worry less. Other writers have shared similar sentiments (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975 and Hamilton, 1981). Indeed, in their counseling suggestions, Kelly and Miller (1999) suggested that providing structure might be beneficial in reducing individuals’ worry. Kelly (2002b) further specifies that structuring one’s View the MathML source, not necessarily structure in general, may be a key element in reducing unpleasant psychological experiences. Previous research (Bond and Feather, 1988 and Macan et al., 1990) supports this assertion. Thus, theoretically, structuring one’s time might somewhat help to alleviate worry. However, empirical investigations to specifically test this possibility have not been conducted. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between worry and two time-related variables (time structure and purpose and time management). Bond and Feather (1988) developed a measure of time structure and purpose (the Time Structure Questionnaire: TSQ), to measure the degree to which individuals order and have meaning in their time. Bond and Feather (1988) report that individuals scoring higher on the TSQ also score higher on measures of psychological well-being (self-esteem, purpose in life, and extraversion) and an orientation towards hard work, and lower on measures of distress (depression, anxiety, hopelessness, and neuroticism) and physical symptoms. Time structure and purpose (the TSQ) has also been negatively related to boredom proneness (Vodanovich & Watt, 1999). The Time Management Behavior Scale (TMB; Macan et al., 1990) was developed to measure behaviors thought to be “critical to the construct of time management” (p. 761). The TMB is thought to measure different elements of time use than the TSQ (Macan et al., 1990). For instance, the TMB was designed to measure specific time management behaviors (e.g., planning and goal setting), while the TSQ measures more general time-related information (e.g., persistence in time use and present orientation). The authors of the TMB report that individuals reporting more time management behaviors (scoring high on the TMB) score higher on measures of Type-A personality, job and life satisfaction, academic performance, and lower on measures of stress. Additional research has indicated that time management behaviors (high scores on the TMB) are also related to more accuracy in predicting task duration (Francis-Smythe & Robertson, 1999), decreased work-tension and increased job satisfaction (Macan, 1994), and lower scores on trait-procrastination (Lay, 1992).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The results partially supported the hypothesis. Worry was negatively related to time structure and purpose. However, worry was largely unrelated to time management behaviors. Hence, the theoretical assumption that structuring and occupying one’s time can reduce worry appears to have some merit. However, specific time management techniques may have little effect on worry. The findings of the present research are somewhat consistent with previous research that typically unpleasant experiences such as stress, hopelessness, neuroticism, and depression (Bond & Feather, 1988), and boredom proneness (Vodanovich & Watt, 1999) are negatively related to time structure and purpose. This adds some construct validity to the TSQ and indirectly supports the SWS as a measure of the unpleasant experience of worry. The findings of the present study have at least two implications for time and worry research. First, it does appear to be the case that time structure and purpose and time management are separate constructs, since they obviously account for separate variances in worry. Conceptually, time structure may be measuring more feelings of purpose in one’s time, whereas time management may measuring more specific time-related behaviors. Secondly, and more related to the present research, increasing perceptions of structure and purpose in one’s time may be beneficial in decreasing worry, whereas the use of certain time management behaviors (making lists, prioritizing, organizing one’s time, and attempting to control one’s time) may not be as helpful as anticipated in decreasing worry. Hence, it appears that the relationship between worry and time use may involve perception of time more than actual time-related behaviors. Despite the finding that worry was generally unrelated to time management behaviors, it is noteworthy that the TSQ and TMB subscales combined accounted for 24% of the variance in SWS scores. This finding in itself, largely substantiates Kelly and Miller’s (1999) clinical suggestion that providing structure might assist in decreasing one’s worry. However, the finding that worry appears to occur less when individuals structure and manage their time taken together with Dugas et al.’s (2001) finding that worry is related to an intolerance for uncertainty and Davey et al.’s (1992) finding that worriers are more likely to perceive ambiguous and uncertain situations as threatening, begs another question. Would worriers benefit more from increasing their tolerance of uncertainty and ambiguity or from increasing structure in their lives?