دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 66803
عنوان فارسی مقاله

مواجهه شخصی کودکان با هوای آلوده در روستاها در بوتان

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
66803 2015 8 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.
عنوان انگلیسی
Children's personal exposure to air pollution in rural villages in Bhutan
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Environmental Research, Volume 140, July 2015, Pages 691–698

کلمات کلیدی
مواجهه شخصی؛ فرزندان؛ ذرات بسیار ریز؛ بوتان
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله مواجهه شخصی کودکان با هوای آلوده در روستاها در بوتان

چکیده انگلیسی

Exposure assessment studies conducted in developing countries have been based on fixed-site monitoring to date. This is a major deficiency, leading to errors in estimating the actual exposures, which are a function of time spent and pollutant concentrations in different microenvironments. This study quantified school children's daily personal exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) using real-time monitoring, as well as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NO2 using passive sampling in rural Bhutan in order to determine the factors driving the exposures. An activity diary was used to track children's time activity patterns, and difference in mean exposure levels across sex and indoor/outdoor were investigated with ANOVA. 82 children, attending three primary schools participated in this study; S1 and S2 during the wet season and S3 during the dry season. Mean daily UFP exposure (cm–3) was 1.08×104 for children attending S1, 9.81×103 for S2, and 4.19×104 for S3. The mean daily NO2 exposure (µg m−3) was 4.27 for S1, 3.33 for S2 and 5.38 for S3 children. Likewise, children attending S3 also experienced higher daily exposure to a majority of the VOCs than those attending S1 and S2. Time-series of UFP personal exposures provided detailed information on identifying sources of these particles and quantifying their contributions to the total daily exposures for each microenvironment. The highest UFP exposure resulted from cooking/eating, contributing to 64% of the daily exposure, due to firewood combustion in houses using traditional mud cookstoves. The lowest UFP exposures were during the hours that children spent outdoors at school. The outcomes of this study highlight the significant contributions of lifestyle and socio-economic factors in personal exposures and have applications in environmental risk assessment and household air pollution mitigation in Bhutan.

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پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.