مدیریت زنجیره تامین محصول تازه با برون سپاری تدارکات
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|670||2013||14 صفحه PDF||41 صفحه WORD|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Omega, Volume 41, Issue 4, August 2013, Pages 752–765
5.1 تصمیمات مطلوب کاملاً متمرکز
We consider a supply chain in which a producer supplies a fresh product, through a third-party logistics (3PL) provider, to a distant market where a distributor purchases and sells it to end customers. The product is perishable, both the quantity and quality of which may deteriorate during the process of transportation. The market demand is random, sensitive to the selling price as well as the freshness of the product. We derive the optimal decisions for the three supply chain members, including the 3PL provider's transportation fee, the producer's shipping quantity and wholesale price, and the distributor's purchasing quantity and retail price. We find that the presence of the 3PL provider in the supply chain has a significant impact on its performance. We propose an incentive scheme to coordinate the supply chain. The scheme consists of two contracts, including a wholesale-market clearance (WMC) contract between the producer and the distributor, and a wholesale-price-discount sharing (WDS) contract between the producer and the 3PL provider. We show that the proposed contracts can eliminate the two sources of “double marginalization” that exist in the three-tier supply chain, and induce the three parties to act in a coordinated way.
We consider a supply chain in which a fresh-product producer supplies the product to a distant market, via a specialized third-party logistics (3PL) provider, where a distributor purchases and sells it to end customers. Because of the vast distance between the production base and the target market, the transport time is long and usually quite unstable. As a result, the fresh product is prone to decay/deterioration during the process of transportation. Moreover, end customers are sensitive to both the retail price and level of freshness of the product, and thus the market demand is random, highly depending on these two factors. With uncertainties in transport time, level of freshness, and market demand, the decisions of the three parties involved in such a supply chain are complicated, which may cause great losses if not made appropriately. The main purpose of this paper is to develop a model to address these issues, to characterize the optimal decisions that each party should adopt, and to examine the appropriate incentive schemes to motivate the chain members to coordinate so that everyone benefits from the improved performance of the system. Different structures exist in fresh product supply chains, depending on how parties such as producers, collectors, brokers, wholesales, and retailers, etc., are involved. Cadilhon et al. [9, p. 137] summarize five typical structures. The model we consider in this paper corresponds to one of the two modern distribution systems (Structure 5 of Cadilhon et al. ), which represents a direct distribution channel from the producer to the retailer. One example that supports our model is the Floratrading business developed in Ecuador's cut flower industry , which has been set up to capture the market opportunities in rural regions of America. The development gives rise to a fully integrated supply chain for roses, involving a grower-owned brokerage firm, Floratrading, located in the production base (which we call the “Producer” in our model), UPS for the logistics and transportation (the “3PL Provider” in our model), and a rural florist (which we call the “Distributor”) to sell the product to end customers in the American market. Fig. 1 of  shows the new distribution channel consisting of Floratrading, UPS, and rural florist, in comparison with other more traditional channels. Another example that has motivated our work is Kunming Hongri Flower Plant Co., Ltd. (kunming-hongri.en.ywsp.com), a specialized export company of fresh cut flowers that locates in Kunming, one of the biggest flower plant bases in the world. The firm exports carnations, roses, lilies, etc., to other countries (including Japan and South Korea), through specialized 3PL providers. The market demand of the fresh-cut flower depends heavily on its freshness upon arriving at the destination markets. Therefore, how to maintain the quality of the flower is a key concern in their operations. Although motivated by the practices of fresh-flower supply chains, the model we study is also applicable to other problems that involve production, transportation, and distribution of fresh produces, including fruit, vegetables, live seafood, etc.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Supply chains involving long distance transportation of fresh product have become increasingly common in both international and domestic markets, but investigation of such supply chains when transportation time is uncertain is a relatively new line of research. There are many interesting yet challenging issues left for future study. One topic is to further study the decisions faced by 3PL providers in different situations, such as cargo consolidation among multiple clients. Another topic is on the problem where the fresh product can be categorized into different freshness levels, and the distributor can set different retail prices accordingly. This problem is much more complicated, due to the correlation among the demands at different freshness levels. It is also interesting to consider the incomplete information issue. Note that our current model assumes that all the three parties have common knowledge on information such as market demand and cost of every party. This may not be a realistic assumption in many situations, although it is a common hypothesis made in the supply chain management literature. How to motivate all parties concerned to exchange information under certain incentive mechanisms ? This is an interesting topic for future research. Other topics include multiple producers and multiple distributors, with or without cooperation.