نقشه برداری سود و زیان مرتبط با نوآوری فرایند : مورد تصویب RFID
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|6714||2011||17 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technovation, Volume 31, Issue 9, September 2011, Pages 505–521
The successful implementation of any innovation requires an understanding of its benefits and costs. This study examines the changes in the magnitude of costs and benefits associated with technology process innovation adoption as the innovation diffuses across different industries. Using RFID as an exemplar technology, the study shows that the magnitude of benefits and costs associated with technological process innovation adoption within different industries varies as technology diffuses beyond early adopters to the early majority. During the early stages of technology evolution, the development cost, the cost of capital, ethical costs and simple direct implementation costs (in the form of the cost of tags) predominate. As a dominant design emerges the profile of costs changes with the emphasis on initiation costs, more holistic direct implementation costs and indirect implementation costs. A similar change in the emphasis of benefits is observed, with a shift from direct to indirect benefits being noticeable as the technology moves from early adopters to early majority adopters. Our findings help to explain the difficulties in consistently measuring innovation outcomes observed in the innovation implementation literature, and emphasize the need to take into consideration the stage of technology development as a significant factor that influences the realised outcomes from innovation implementation.
The benefits and costs associated with the organizational adoption of technology innovation in general, and technology process innovation in particular, have been widely covered in the innovation literature. For example a wealth of research has considered the benefits (Chwelos et al., 2001, Cunningham and Tynan, 1993, Iacovou et al., 1995 and Subramani, 2004) and, to a more limited extent, the costs (Premkumar et al., 1994 and Zhu et al., 2006) associated with the adoption of information technology (IT) innovation in organizations, one of the most researched forms of process innovation (Tidd et al., 2005). Longitudinal studies of technology diffusion have also identified the role of innovation outcomes (in particular benefits and cost) in shaping technology diffusion. For example, Attewell (1992) notes the role that the cost of equipment plays in shaping the adoption of business computing. The adoption of innovation in organizations can be seen as a stage process involving the generation of an innovative idea, the acceptance of that innovation represented by an organizational mandate to change and its implementation so that the innovation becomes ingrained within the organization ( Bunduchi and Smart, 2010 and Thompson, 1965). Existing literature has examined the benefits and costs associated with innovation adoption either as antecedents of the decision to accept and/or to implement an innovation (e.g. Chwelos et al., 2001 and Premkumar et al., 1994) or, less often, as the outcomes of successful or not so successful acceptance and/or implementation (e.g. Klein and Sorra, 1996 and Meyers et al., 1999). One strand of literature – adoption studies – has focused on users' expectations of a particular innovation and the role that these expectations play in driving innovation adoption, concentrating particularly on the acceptance of innovations within an organization. A second strand – implementation studies – has emphasized the realised outcomes of innovation acceptance and implementation, and in particular the relationship between implementation success and innovation outcomes. While adoption studies have identified different types of anticipated benefits and, to lesser extent, anticipated costs (see Bunduchi and Smart, 2010), implementation studies have generally been vague in identifying the nature of innovation outcomes, and have instead highlighted the difficulty of assessing the precise nature of innovation benefits (Linton, 2002). Implementation literature has also recognized that the realization of these benefits is dependent upon the “success” of innovation implementation (Klein and Sorra, 1996). These observations illustrate Weick's comment that “we typically do a fine grained analysis to isolate separate causes but then do a coarse grained analysis when we examine effects” (1974, p. 366). Meyer and Goes (1988) also observed that the antecedents of innovation adoption, such as expected outcomes, were carefully identified and isolated in the literature, while realised outcomes were generally lumped together and treated as a single effect of implementation.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study has made several contributions to literature and to business practice. First, it has provided evidence that innovation costs and benefits vary as a technology evolves. By comparing the costs and benefits incurred by the early majority with the benefits and costs associated with early adopter sectors, the research has shown that the magnitude of innovation outcomes changes as the RFID technology diffuses. During the early stages of technology evolution, development costs, the costs of capital, ethical costs and simple direct implementation costs (in the form of the cost of tags) predominated (Smart et al., 2010). As the technology has become more mainstream, and a dominant design has emerged, the profile of costs has changed, with the emphasis being placed on initiation costs, on more holistic direct implementation costs, and in particular, on indirect implementation costs. A similar change in the emphasis of benefits was observed, with a shift from direct to indirect benefits being noticeable as the technology moved from early adopters to early majority. Future research is needed to assess whether these variations are also observed for other technologies, and how these patterns are reflected in the population of innovation adopters. Such a study would require a longitudinal design to examine the relationship between costs and likelihood of adoption during the different stages of a technology life cycle.