مزایای انرژی اقتصادی و زیست محیطی با استفاده از موتورهای با کارآیی بالا به جای موتورهای استاندارد برای صنایع مالزی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6744||2010||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||2500 کلمه|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Energy Policy, Volume 38, Issue 8, August 2010, Pages 4617–4625
Electric motors use major share (i.e. about 30–80% of total industrial energy consumption) of total industrial energy use around the world. Experiences from other countries show that government intervention in the form of regulations such as mandatory and voluntary approaches can save sizeable amount of energy along with the reduction in emissions associated with energy savings. This paper presents potential energy savings by introducing high-efficiency motors as a case study in Malaysian industrial sector. Emission reductions associated with the energy savings has been estimated and presented as well. It was also estimated that a cumulative amount of 1940 and 892 GWh of energy can be saved for 20 and 120 kW motors, respectively, in Malaysia relative to BAU over the next 10 years. Similarly, a cumulative amount of USD 100 million and USD 60 million can be saved as utility bills for the same motor categories. It has been found that the payback period of different capacities of motors are less than a year. Based on results, it was found that 1789 million kg of CO2 emission can be avoided by replacing standard motors with high-efficiency motors.
Electric motors have broad applications in areas such as industry, business, public service and household electrical appliances, powering a variety of equipments including air blowers, water pumps, compressors and machine tools, as can be seen in Fig. 1. In industrially developed nations and large developing nations, electric motors account for a considerable proportion of total national power consumption (APEC, 2008).Energy use performance and energy efficiencies of the industrial sector have also been studied in different surveys in many countries (Ozturk, 2005, Christoffersen et al., 2006 and Subrahmanya, 2006). In Slovenia, the industrial sector uses about 52% of total electrical energy (Al-Mansour et al., 2003). In Turkey about 35% of total energy is used in industrial sector (Onut and Soner, 2007). Approximately half of UK’s generated electricity is used to drive electric motors. This means that efficiency improvements to electrical machines can have a very large impact on energy use (Mecrow and Jack, 2008). Motor driven systems account for approximately 65% of the electricity used by EU industry (Anon, 2004). In Jordan, industrial sector uses about 31% of total energy (Al-Ghandoor et al., 2008). In Malaysia, about 48% of total industrial energy is used by industrial motors and is as shown in Table 1 (Saidur et al., 2009a). In many industrialized countries, more than 70% of the total produced energy is used by electric motors. Share of electric motor energy use for some selected countries is shown in Table 1. Therefore, the cost of energy to operate motors has become a real concern for industries. On the other hand, the concern for the environment particularly through the emission of greenhouse gases and other pollutants has prompted the regulators of utilities to enforce alternative measures to meet load growth, instead of building additional power stations (Akbaba, 1999). Comprehensive references on electric motors energy savings, policy and technology is presented by Nadel et al., 2002. A comprehensive review on electric motor energy use was provided by Saidur (2010).The electricity share by electric motors in plants is about 65% of the total electricity consumption in Turkey. Therefore, it is important to choose high-efficiency motors in industries to reduce energy use and emission produced by burning fossil fuels (Kaya et al., 2008). Many countries around the world have already implemented energy efficiency standards; many are in the process of developing them as can be seen in Table 2. It may be mentioned that energy can be saved using technology such as use of variable speed drive, use of capacitor banks to improve power factor, by regular maintenance of electric motors and by implementing energy efficiency regulations such as voluntary, mandatory approaches, incentives and energy guide labels. Electricity can be saved also by avoiding over sizing as mentioned by Nadel et al. (2002). However, the focus of this paper is to quantify energy savings, bill savings and emission reductions for electric motors by energy efficiency regulations.Mahlia et al. (2004) carried out some works about the energy savings potential by implementing energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners and household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia. Almeida et al. (2003), Garcia et al. (2007) and many others carried out some works on motor energy efficiency standards. Lu (2007) developed energy efficiency standards for central air conditioners for China and reported potential energy savings and environmental benefits of energy efficiency standards. Lu (2006) developed energy efficiency standards for refrigerator-freezers in China and reported potential energy savings and environmental benefits of energy efficiency standards. Wiel and McMahon (2005) wrote a comprehensive guidebook about global standards and labels for appliances. However, there is no such work for industrial motors in Malaysia. This study will fill that gap and it is expected that this study will be useful for policy makers of Malaysia and ASEAN regions, researchers and industrial energy users. Moreover, this study will create strong awareness about electric motor energy savings and emission reductions. 1.1. Global status of electric motor standards and labels Many countries already developed energy efficiency standards and labels and many are in the process of developing them. A summary of present status of standards and labels for electric motors is given in Table 2. Minimum efficiency requirements or minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) are a powerful tool to force market transformation, as can be seen in Fig. 2.1.2. Energy savings by using a high-efficiency motor A high-efficiency motor (HEM) uses low loss materials to reduce core and copper losses. Therefore, it generates less heat and requires smaller and more energy efficient cooling fans. Several leading electric motor manufacturers, mainly in USA and Europe, have developed product lines of energy-efficient electric motors (Akbaba, 1999). Historically, the primary goal in motor manufacture has been to reduce production costs while preserving available power. A motor can be made more efficient by improvements in design: magnetic cores with plates made of ferrosilicon alloys, better-filled slots using more copper, larger rotor conductors and improvements in air-gaps, core heads, fans and bearings and in the dimensional design. High-efficiency motors typically cost 10–25% more than standard ones (Garcia et al., 2007 and CLASP, 2009). Malaysian policy on the classification of motor is based on CEMEP classification. For high-efficiency motor rating in Malaysia, Energy Commission of Malaysia has adopted EU classification in 2005 with EFF 1 level as the threshold, i.e. all motors with efficiency level equal to or above the EFF 1 are to be classified as high-efficiency motor (HEM) as presented in Table 3 (Yanti and Mahlia, 2009).The aim is to make the industry realize that EFF 2 and EFF 3 motors use more energy than EFF 1 motors. Motor manufacturers representing 80% of the motor sales in Malaysia have agreed and participated in the High-Efficiency Electric Motor Agreement (HEEMA) to support the Malaysian Energy Commission’s initiative to promote greater use of HEMs. To encourage use/sales of high-efficiency motors, Malaysian government provided following incentives (Yanti and Mahlia, 2009): 1) For companies providing energy conservation services: • pioneer status with tax exemption of 70% of statutory income for a period of 5 years; or • investment tax allowance of 60% on the qualifying capital expenditure incurred within a period of 5 years with the allowance deducted in each year of assessment be set-off against 70% of statutory income and • import duty and sales tax exemption for equipment used in the related project, which are not produced locally. Equipment purchased from local manufacturers is given sales tax exemption. 2) For companies that incur capital expenditure for conserving energy for own consumption: • import duty and sales tax exemption for equipment used in energy conservation, which are not produced locally; • equipment purchased from local manufacturers is given sales tax exemption and • applications made to chairman of energy commission.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
It has been found that using high-efficiency motors will reduce national energy consumption in many countries around the world. It was estimated that about 1575 GWh of energy can be saved for all categories of motors for the year 2010. This will save about 105 million USD as a utility bill for the same period. However, savings will be declined gradually due to technological advances. The reduction in energy consumption would also result in the reduction in carbon dioxide and other pollutants into the environment, thus helping to create a better world for future generations. It was found that about 1789 million kg of CO2 emission can be avoided by replacing standard motors with high-efficiency motors. Based on simple payback period and present value analysis it can be concluded that introduction of standard is very cost effective. The program would also create competition among local motor manufacturers that will encourage them to produce motors those are more efficient and internationally marketable. By purchasing a motor that is more efficient at a slightly higher cost, the consumers would pay less for electricity bill. It can be recommended that an awareness campaign should be introduced for using high-efficiency motors among the industrial energy users, policy makers, NGOs and research organizations through advertising and postering. Mass media can play a vital role in this regard. Malaysia needs to establish a framework to continually collect pertinent data on industrial energy pattern. It is crucial to have time-series data of the electric motor saturation levels, its unit energy consumption, lifetime of an electric motor and electric motor load shapes in order to obtain an exact figure of the energy consumption. As consumers are crucial to the success of the labelling program, sustained information campaign is needed and the label’s design should incorporate consumer feedback simultaneously. Efforts to conserve energy and utilize energy efficiently in industries have been hampered by several barriers, which are financial, information, regulatory and technical in nature. The main barriers include: • Limited knowledge or awareness about EE techniques or technologies in industries and the lifecycle economic benefits of energy efficient motors. Producers remain extremely sensitive to the relatively high first cost to be paid for energy efficient equipment. • Limited access to information on EE techniques/technologies. Lack of information on equipment energy benchmarks. • Industries are unwilling to incur what are perceived as “high cost–high risk” transactions barriers involved in implementing EE projects. • Industries generally focus on investments on production-related improvements and not productivity. • Lack of financiers ready to finance EE industrial processes. • Limited or not stringent regulations on energy efficiency standards and implementation. • Few or limited EE technology demonstration projects implemented by industries or Government • Lack of trained industry and financial sector personnel on energy management.