بارهای شستشوی سبز ــ آیا اقتصاد رفتاری ، تمایل به پرداخت برای ماشین لباسشویی کارآمد در انگلستان را افزایش خواهد داد ؟
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|6793||2012||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Energy Policy, Volume 50, November 2012, Pages 242–252
The EU energy efficiency labelling scheme has successfully increased demand for efficient appliances by providing a prominent letter rating to consumers during their product search. Behavioural economics (BE) suggests the adoption of efficient appliances could be accelerated further by: (i) monetising efficiency, (ii) directly communicating the link between efficiency and carbon emissions, (iii) communicating the long-term (e.g., operational life) financial and environmental impact of product choices, and, (iv) framing the information as avoided losses (‘extra’) rather than gains (‘savings’). This study tested these hypotheses via an online, stated preference survey of 465 UK residents using actual market pricing and efficiency data for washing machines. The provision of information about either running costs or running emissions did encourage selection of more expensive and efficient products (strongly correlated variables in the choice set and actual market) (p<.001, r=.30–.41) with no statistically significant difference between their impact. Providing lifetime running cost information also nudged respondents towards more expensive, efficient products than annual information (p=.006–.027, r=.15–.18). Finally, loss-framed running emissions information encouraged selection of more expensive, efficient products than gain-framed information (p<.05, r=.13–.16). The EU label is an impracticable means of communication, but digital communication channels (e.g., price comparison websites) may offer potential for inexpensive localisation and personalisation of the information. The results suggest that successful communication could benefit the private sector whilst making a contribution to reducing carbon emissions.
The EU labelling scheme has successfully increased the mean efficiency of appliances in its member states. Findings in behavioural economics suggest that information strategies could increase demand for efficient appliances further by: (i) monetising efficiency, (ii) directly communicating the link between efficiency and carbon emissions, (iii) presenting running cost and emissions information on long timescales (e.g., the operational life of the product), and, (iv) framing the information as avoided losses (‘extra’) rather than gains (‘savings’). In the context of energy efficiency, this study adds to a small existing evidence base that suggests willingness-to-pay (WTP) can be marginally increased through lifecycle cost disclosure. None of those studies examined how the effectiveness of the information could be increased further through framing. Although there is empirical evidence that some consumers are willing to pay for reducing carbon emissions, this appears to be the first study of the impact of disclosing running emissions on appliance purchase behaviour. Section 2 outlines the background to the introduction of appliance energy labelling and identifies supplementary information strategies informed by findings in behavioural economics and relevant energy efficiency research. Section 3 specifies the resulting research hypotheses, methodology and questionnaire design. Section 4 presents the results, whilst section 5 considers the theoretical and practical implications. Section 6 concludes. The study confirms that behavioural economics could make a contribution to promoting household demand for efficiency and suggests that the private sector could benefit from applying its insights to marketing efficient products.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Labelling schemes, such as the EU energy label, have been effective at narrowing the energy efficiency gap for electrical appliances in many markets. Findings from psychology and behavioural economics suggest that providing consumers with supplementary information about running costs and emissions could increase WTP for energy efficiency further by reducing the cognitive effort of cost-benefit analysis and appealing to environmental motives. They also suggest that the responsiveness to this information could be increased by using framing techniques to make information more salient and induce loss aversion. This study tested the validity of these hypotheses via an online, stated preference survey of 465 UK residents using real market pricing and efficiency data for washing machines. The results show that the provision of information about either running costs or emissions did increase WTP for efficiency. The results also demonstrate that lifetime running cost information had a larger impact than annual information. Finally, framing information about emissions as losses (extra) had a larger impact than framing it as gains (savings). These results are obtained even though the selected products show relatively little variability in energy efficiency (EU energy rating A to A+++) and the lifetime running cost reductions of the more efficient appliances barely compensate for their higher capital cost. Providing such information may represent a commercial opportunity for the private sector in some product categories. The EU label is an impracticable means of communication, but digital communication channels offer potential for inexpensive localisation and personalisation of the information. The results suggest that the application of behavioural economics to energy efficiency information programmes could benefit both consumers and businesses, whilst making a contribution to reducing carbon emissions. However, a deeper understanding of how framing impacts behaviour is required in order to ensure interventions deliver their intended outcomes.