ساختمان های کم انرژی و ذخیره سازی انرژی حرارتی فصلی از یک چشم انداز اقتصاد رفتاری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6797||2013||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5090 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Applied Energy, Available online 11 April 2013
The seasonal thermal energy storage technology for domestic heating applications is not enjoying the same increasing market penetration as the smaller diurnal thermal energy storage technology. Although high efficiencies are to expect with seasonal thermal energy storages, high up-front costs are likely to constitute an efficient market barrier, impeding the growth of this technology. This paper analyses the application of seasonal thermal energy storages and other, more conventional heating alternatives on passive houses and standard houses from a behavioral economics perspective. The results show that when the seasonal thermal energy storage technology is applied to passive houses, more competitive investment and annual costs can be offered.
The harnessing of renewable solar energy is of great importance in order to secure the energy supply to an increasing population on the earth while reducing the emissions of CO2 for a mitigation of climate change. Solar technology has had tough competition from low prices of oil and natural gas during the 20th century, which has resulted in a low market penetration. However, the prices of oil and natural gas are believed to increase and solar energy offers a way out of the dependence on these fuels. In order to increase the use of solar energy, thermal storages can be used to make excessive heat available at a later time when there is a heating need. The size of the storage is adapted to the time-scale of the application, which can vary from a diurnal to a seasonal scale. While diurnal thermal storages have enjoyed an increasing market penetration over the world, seasonal thermal storages have not shared the same increase in use. Consequently, there is an untapped potential for solar energy in combination with the seasonal thermal energy storage technology. Putting it in perspective – ways to increase the use of renewable solar energy with STES has been available for a long time. The ‘MIT Solar House #1’, which was built in 1939, used solar energy together with a seasonal storage for domestic heating applications . The ‘Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning’ community shares the opinion that one of the most important factors for an increased adoption is the development of economically competitive alternatives for seasonal storage of thermal energy . In particular in high latitude countries like Sweden, where the space heating need and solar radiation are out of phase. The Swedish energy agency submits that the problem of reaching an increased market diffusion is not caused by a lack of knowledge of STES, which is considered to be high, but by the high cost . Even though high economic and technological efficiencies can be reached with the large-scale seasonal thermal storages, high investment costs, logistical challenges and risks follow which are likely to impede the growth of the technology. However, if STES is applied on low-energy buildings instead of standard houses, each household will face a lower up-front investment cost since more households can share the storage, or, smaller storages could be built for the same number of households. The diffusion of an innovation is influenced by many variables such as institutions, economic structures, actors and societal subsystems, and changes first occur on a large scale in the society when the adoption rate of a technology together with the feedback from the evolving dynamics has gained a certain momentum. ,  If the technologies of STES, solar energy and low-energy buildings are used together, it could help them reach stronger market competitiveness faster since the success of each of them could create positive feedback for the other technologies. In order to bring new understanding in how STES can reach a higher market penetration and how it should be developed, it is of importance to study not only the technical aspects of the innovation but also its application from a higher system level, including other, non-technical aspects. With a focus on Sweden, this paper aims to analyze and discuss the diffusion and application of seasonal thermal energy storages (STESs). Based on the seasonal heat storage in Anneberg, Sweden, built in 2001/2002 for standard houses, this paper analyses the competitiveness of this technology and how an application on passive houses changes the competitiveness. The seasonal thermal energy storage technology is compared with other, more conventional heating alternatives, both for passive houses and standard houses. Thereafter, insights from Behavioral economics are used to discuss the diffusion of the STES technology and why it is not enjoying a satisfactory market penetration.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
With a focus of Sweden, this paper addresses the question of how the adoption rate of seasonal thermal energy storages can be increased. The current state and the potential of the STES technology are evaluated and the passive house concept is explained. Based on the seasonal thermal energy storage in Anneberg north of Stockholm, built for standard houses in 2001/2002, the application of the STES technology and other conventional heating alternatives are compared when built for passive houses instead of standard houses. Investment and annual costs are thereafter analyzed from a behavioral economics perspective. Prospect theory and hyperbolic discounting submit that economic agents are risk averse, have tendencies for undervaluing future income and that less wise decisions are taken if they include higher initial costs. A satisfying quantitative measure of irrational behavior is however hard to estimate and since the results of the heating alternatives will vary with climate, maintenance, building type, etc., generalizable results become elusive. However, Fig. 3 shows that if the discount rates in the literature are used here, the discount rate effect adds up to sums that are comparable with the investment costs and therefore large enough to have an influence on the investment decision. Per storage, the STES technology contributes to a larger energy saving and reduction of CO2-emissions if used with standard houses. Nevertheless, bias matters and applying the discount rates well above market rates  and  on the results in Table 3 and Table 4 suggest that the seasonal thermal energy storage technology, if used with passive houses, better can avoid individual discount rates from rising. In addition, the smaller sized STES for low-energy buildings reduce the possibility of ‘limited access to capital’, risk, logistical and constructional challenges from becoming market barriers. Even though there are disadvantages with building smaller STES, from a behavioral economics perspective, the improved investment cost of the STES when built for passive houses and the more competitive annual cost for passive houses can constitute smaller market barriers and thereby enhance the chances for an increased diffusion of this technology. Thus, this paper suggests that future research in addition to focusing on improving the technological efficiency also should focus on improving the adaption of the STES technology for low-energy buildings. This could provide not only environmentally and economically better heating alternatives but also function as a catalyst for an increased market penetration of the STES and solar thermal technology.