نوآوری و توسعه اقتصادی منطقه ای: موضوع مهم چشم انداز کدام است؟
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6920||2005||15 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9844 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Research Policy, Volume 34, Issue 8, October 2005, Pages 1220–1234
This paper investigates the issue of innovation policy within a regional context. It is presented that the perspective one takes is important both in how one interprets the processes and relationships involved, but also in the way one identifies barriers and problems in policy formation and how one resolves them. The paper explores a number of contrasting perspectives in relation to innovation policy and the regions and seeks to highlight the implications of this both for policy, but also in the development of our conceptual understanding about innovation and geography.
This paper investigates the issue of innovation policy within a regional context.1 It is presented here that the perspective one takes is important both in how one interprets the processes and relationships involved, but also in the way one identifies barriers and problems in policy formation and how one resolves them. The paper explores a number of contrasting perspectives in relation to innovation and the regions and seeks to highlight the implications of this both for policy, but also in the development of our conceptual understanding about innovation and geography. The intention of taking these contrasting perspectives is primarily two-fold. Firstly, to highlight the fact that by taking different perspectives one can arrive at very different notions about the objectives, role and even ‘success’ of what might be described as regional innovation policies. The second objective is related to the first, but more wide ranging in that it seeks to unravel some of the confusion and ambiguity caused by different individuals (researchers and policymakers) taking different perspectives on the role and remit of innovation policy and the regions. As such, it seeks to untangle some of the ‘fuzzy notions’ that have arisen out of the debate surrounding innovation policy and the regional dimension, which can be seen in relation to regional policy more generally (Markusen, 1999). A key, initial focus of the paper will be to take two contrasting viewpoints, a ‘top-down’ and a ‘bottom-up’ perspective, to explore innovation relationships and policy issues at a regional level.2 The analysis will seek to show the often conflicting and divergent views of how innovation may, or may not, be seen to relate to regional economic development and growth, using Europe in general and the UK more specifically as exemplars. The paper then moves on to explore a number of other contrasting issues in relation to innovation and spatial policy including: public versus private investment in research and innovation; ‘best practice’ versus bespoke policies; short versus longer time perspectives; and demand versus supply led innovation policies. The paper concludes with a wider conceptual and policy discussion.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This analysis has sought to highlight the often very different perspectives and policy concerns that emerge from taking contrasting perspectives of regional innovation. Often studies imply in their discussion that there is one received view of innovation policy and regional development, but in reality there are often radically different ones. To be effective innovation policy at the regional level needs coordination and reconciliation of all these different perspectives. This does not necessarily mean that there always has to be agreement about objectives or strategies; indeed there may be some benefit of having ‘creative tension’ in the formation of policy. Perspective matters in policy debate and formation; the ‘right’ answer may vary depending on what perspective one is taking. It should be stressed, though, that the use of contrasting conceptual and policy perspectives is not meant to imply some kind of underlying dualistic structure, rather the opposite. Only by recognising that the extreme ends of the spectrum can one start to recognise firstly, the intermediate positions within the two extremes and their complexity,17 and, secondly, that many of the resolutions to making regions more innovative can only be resolved if the contrasting positions and issues are addressed together. Regional innovation policies that seek to accommodate top-down and bottom-up issues and both supply led and demand-led considerations are therefore important here. Lastly, we need to acknowledge that no one scale is best both to perceive innovation processes (Bunnell and Coe, 2001) and to deal with them in policy terms. We need to accept that with devolution of innovation policy and practice in advanced developed economies comes with increased threat of diversity and possible conflict. This diversity in evolutionary terms may be conceived as good in the sense that it helps maintain a healthy, progressive and adaptive system (Metcalfe, 1995, p. 40). This pluralism also encourages new and innovative policies to emerge that otherwise would not have been developed in a more centralised framework. Maintaining potential for choice and diversity is important therefore, but we must understand that we need to maintain the coupling and connectivity between these choices if innovation policy is going to have any relevance to the regions, or for the regions to realise their full potential for the benefit of the wider nation state.