نقش حمایتی، ارتباطات عمودی و توسعه اقتصادی: درسهایی از اقتصادهای در حال گذار
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6956||2009||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9030 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of World Business, Volume 44, Issue 2, April 2009, Pages 167–179
Vertical supply chain linkages between foreign subsidiaries and domestic firms are important mechanisms for knowledge spillovers, contributing to the economic development of host economies. This paper argues that subsidiary roles and technological competences affect the extent of vertical linkages as such as well as their potential for technological spillovers. Using survey evidence from 424 foreign subsidiaries based in transition economies, we tested for the effect of subsidiaries’ autonomy, initiative, technological capability, internal and external technological embeddedness on the extent and intensity of forward and backward vertical linkages. The evidence supports our main argument that the potential of technology diffusion via vertical linkages depends on the nature of subsidiary roles. We discuss the implications for transition as well as other developing countries.
Through technology transfer, spillovers and linkages, multinational enterprises (MNEs) are of critical importance for economic development, especially for developing and transition economies (Hoekman & Javorcik Smarzynska, 2006; Ivarsson & Alvstam, 2005; Kugler, 2006 and UNCTAD, 2001). A widely supported explanation for this is that MNEs possess superior technological and managerial advantages, and when this knowledge is diffused to local firms, it enhances endogenous firms’ own capabilities (Giroud, 2003; Hoekman & Javorcik Smarzynska, 2006; Lall & Narula, 2004). However, this is not an automatic process; for instance, the potential for linkages and spillovers has been linked to individual subsidiaries’ objectives and activities (Cantwell & Mudambi, 2000; Marin & Bell, 2006). Studies suggest that the developmental impact of foreign subsidiaries via vertical linkages is highest when these firms demonstrate enhanced autonomy and initiative, and when they possess technological competencies (Cantwell & Iguchi, 2005; Giroud & Mirza, 2006; UNCTAD, 2001: 137). There is limited evidence in the literature on how subsidiaries’ roles or strategies affect linkage creation in developing countries (Meyer, 2004) or indeed, in developed countries (Scott-Kennel, 2007). The aim of this paper is to contribute to the literature by investigating the relationship between subsidiaries’ roles, technological competences and linkages formation in developing transition economies, thereby leading to a better understanding of when and how foreign firms contribute to the local economy and local firms’ development. This paper offers an analysis of a unique dataset on 424 foreign subsidiaries based Estonia, Slovenia, Hungary, Slovakia and Poland with in-depth data on subsidiary characteristics and vertical linkages to the domestic economy. We characterise subsidiary roles by the degree of autonomy in selected business functions and by the level of initiative in relation to changes in the product scope. Our focus is on technological sources of subsidiaries, differentiating between their own capability, their technological embeddedness with the MNE network as well as with the external environment in the host economy. Vertical linkages are defined as backward linkages with the local supply industries and forward linkages with customers; with a distinction between the extent of linkages formation (or how much is being bought or sold locally) and linkages intensity (or the developmental potential for local firms). With a series of OLS regression, we test for the effect of subsidiary roles, technological competences and vertical linkages. We account also for host country, industry and other firm specific effects in the corresponding estimations. The results suggest that the potential for technology diffusion via vertical linkages depends on the nature of subsidiary roles. Higher levels of subsidiary autonomy, initiative and own technological capability increases the potential for technology diffusion to local customers. In contrast, potential diffusion to local suppliers is linked to own technological capability and intense technology sourcing from the MNE. Subsidiaries endowed with a product development mandate tend to form fewer vertical linkages locally. Given that the evidence on vertical technological spillovers in transition economies is very mixed (see Jindra, 2006), our results hint at some possible explanatory variables at subsidiary level. These have to be put into perspective by consideration of the far reaching organisational changes in MNEs over the past few years, whereby often key suppliers with regional or global reach dominate linkages and foreign subsidiaries tend to be tightly controlled and specialised. On the other hand, MNE entry into transition economies is fairly recent and economic development ongoing. Therefore, there might be scope for changes to subsidiary roles in terms of attaining more central positions within the MNE network under the condition that technological capabilities are going to be upgraded. This is also dependent upon the technological development of local firms as the strength of external technological network in the host economy can lead to an enhanced position of the subsidiary in the MNE's internal network (Belderbos, Capannelli, & Fukao, 2001; Cantwell & Iguchi, 2005; Hood & Young, 2000; Javorcik, 2004; Scott-Kennel & Enderwick, 2004). Our evidence on the link between subsidiary roles and technology diffusion relates to transition countries, which in the developing country context form a distinct group due to above average industrial employment, human capital and physical infrastructure compared to countries with similar income levels (Gros & Suhrke, 2000; Yamin & Sinkovics, in press). Many transition economies are developing economies, but not all developing countries are in transition from a centrally planned to a market system (Mirza & Freeman, 2007). The countries under study in this paper are still in a development process and belong to the middle-income group (World Bank, 2007), except for Slovenia. Because the potential for vertical linkages increases with the level of development of the host economy (Giroud, 2003), middle-income countries are best suited for our study. This analysis on the relationship between subsidiary roles and vertical linkages in transition economies is further relevant to other lower and upper middle-income economies in the developing world. The following section outlines briefly key developments in transition countries of Eastern Europe. This is followed by a review of literature on the impact of MNEs via vertical linkages on the host economy. We then argue in detail how subsidiary roles are related to vertical linkages and derive corresponding hypotheses. This part is followed by sections on methodology, estimation results, discussion of key findings, and finally, conclusions, policy implications and recommendations for future research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The key contribution of this paper is confirming relationships between the subsidiary's level of autonomy in its decision making process, its own initiatives and technological competences and the development of vertical linkages with suppliers and customers in host economies. Our findings suggest that the subsidiary's autonomy and technological competences are decisive for the potential developmental impact of MNEs in transition economies. Our findings are useful for several reasons. First, they suggest a way forward for future research in the area of firm-specific determinants of linkages, which should include both host-country and firm-specific variables. Second, they provide us with better understanding of the role played by foreign subsidiaries in the development of local firms in the transitional economies of Eastern Europe, and indeed, why their impact might not be as positive as it could be. Third, the fact that linkage formation and intensity differs by country, suggests a need to explore the differences in location-specific variables in Eastern Europe specifically, but for all developing economies. Fourth, explicit consideration of subsidiary roles and vertical linkages enables us to tease out the reasons behind the heterogeneity of FDI and, consequently, its divergent effects on host economies.