فرآیندهای مدیریت ریسک در شبکه های تامین کننده
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|698||2004||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 90, Issue 1, 8 July 2004, Pages 47–58
This paper deals with risk management in supplier networks. The primary aim is to illustrate challenges that network co-operation brings to risk management. The paper outlines the general structure of the risk management process and presents methods for risk management in a complex network environment. The results indicate that risk management is an important development target in the studied supplier networks. When the dependency between companies increases, they become more exposed to the risks of other companies. The presented processes facilitate understanding and managing of uncertainties and risks in supplier networks. Empirical evidence is offered on the basis of case studies.
1.1. Background In many business environments, networking is almost an inevitable solution to help companies respond fast to market changes. In network collaboration companies deepen their relationship with partners and thus become more dependent on each other. The key success factors in networking, and the motives for entering into a partnership or alliance form the basis for the development of network arrangements. Opportunities like reduced transactions costs, ability to concentrate on core skills, access to key technologies, and risk sharing among partners give direction for the development process. Even though a lot of research has been conducted in the field of industrial networking and supply chain management in recent years, only some of it has dealt with the risk management associated to these topics. In the years 1999–2001 a large study has been conducted with several industrial and academic partners. This paper has partially resulted from that research project (see also Hallikas et al (2001) and Hallikas et al (2002)). 1.2. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to contribute and provide a more complete understanding of risk management in supplier networks. The paper seeks to express the risk management process approach in order to provide a more holistic view on the subject. We have formulated the following two general research questions for the study: (1) What kinds of risks arise from network collaboration? (2) How do the risk management processes operate in network collaboration? Additional research objectives include answering the question of how risks can be identified and assessed, and what kind of options there are for controlling and managing risks. Furthermore, we will discuss special features that networking brings to business risk management. We will use these objectives and research questions to develop the outline of the study. We have used the qualitative case study research methodology (Yin, 1994) in the study because the nature of the subject calls for deeper understanding of the topic. Information has been gathered through in-depth interviews with managers and chief executives from both, suppliers’ and buying companies’ side. Eleven companies from two industrial fields, electronics and metal industry have been involved in the study. 1.3. Outline of the study The paper outlines the general structure of the risk management process and presents methods for managing risk in the network environment. After the theoretical background, we present the general characteristics of the studied networks. The nature of the risk management process is explained from the point of view of business networks. The phases and special characteristics of the risk management process are presented. After outlining the risk management process, we deepen our approach and demonstrate some special features of risk management in terms of dynamics and feedback. Finally we discuss the main findings, draw a conclusion of the study, and discuss future research challenges in the topic.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The purpose of this paper was to contribute to a more complete understanding of risk management in supplier networks. The paper described the challenges that network co-operation brings to risk management. The aim was also to explore the process approach in order to provide a more holistic view on the subject. One objective of the study was to find out what kinds of risks arise from network co-operation. Most companies operate in many networks and every company also perceives its risks differently. It can be generalized that companies become more dependent on each other and thus risk transfer and sharing occur in networks. The primary purpose of network co-operation is to bring benefits to both the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and the suppliers. This is, however, likely to increase dependency between the organizations. When the dependency between companies increases, they become more exposed to the risks of other companies. Networking also increases the supplier responsibilities and sometimes investment risks may be transferred to the suppliers. The optimal strategy is to aim at share and balance rewards and risks between organizations. Companies should also avoid being too dependent on a single network or organization. The presented general risk management processes explain the phases and principles for managing risk in network relationships. Basically, a company first analyzes its network-related risks internally. In a study of two example networks we found it useful and illustrative to analyze the risks as grouped in four types; risks resulting from: demand problems, problems in fulfilling customer deliveries, cost management and pricing, and weaknesses in resources, development and flexibility. In the second phase the partners should identify the areas of risk management that require joint effort. Risk identification is an essential part of the risk management process because in networks risks may arise from complex chains that are difficult to perceive. The dynamics of relationship development causes an additional difficulty. Companies in networks should therefore communicate and share their views on risks, because different views help in recognizing and understanding common opportunities and threats in a more holistic way. As a result, the improved understanding helps to make better decisions and decreases the risks of both a single organization and a whole network. A lot of research remains to be done. Interorganizational information sharing and knowledge transfer cause a great deal of uncertainty and risk. The development of information and knowledge systems is therefore a great challenge and also a potential means to manage risks. A challenging issue is also how risks and rewards should be shared in network collaboration.