آیا حمل و نقل هوایی یک ضرورت برای فراگیری اجتماعی و توسعه اقتصادی هست؟
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6983||2012||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5940 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Air Transport Management, Volume 22, July 2012, Pages 53–59
Aviation policy makers are faced with the challenge of facilitating growing air travel in such a way that it meets environment objectives and the need to provide socially necessary air services. Various incentives have been offered to encourage the launch of new air routes or sustain existing services, such as public service obligations and the Route Development Fund. This paper provides an overview of an independent evaluation of the funding mechanism in Scotland and highlights the difficulties faced analysing the effects of the scheme and challenges faced by policy makers in making robust policy intervention decisions, given the uncertainty surrounding their effects. The results suggest that the Fund has significantly increased passenger flows and travel conditions for business and leisure passengers, and increased the gross value added impact to the wider Scottish economy.
With the rising chorus of calls for policy makers to implement measures to reduce the demand for air travel it might appear perverse for Governments to be seen to promote air transport. One consequence of deregulating Europe's airline industry has been the need to provide direct subsidies to ensure the continuation of air services to remote communities, previously cross-subsidised by profits from busier routes of the same airline. This situation was brought to an end by the introduction of the EU “Third Package” in 1993 and its extension to domestic services in 1997 (Williams, 2005). Policy makers addressing the needs of more remote regions are faced with conflicting pressures to provide opportunities for air travel. Provisions exist for EU governments to tender air services which are deemed to be socially necessary but are not provided commercially. The package of measures also includes provision for the member states to impose ‘public service obligations’ on low-density routes which were deemed necessary for the purposes of economic and regional development (Reynolds-Feighan, 1995a). In the UK this has been a feature of policy for many years for markets that focus on socially necessary services. The designation of Public Service Obligation (PSO) status has become increasingly common in Europe since 1993 following establishment of the Essential Air Services (EAS) was introduced in the US in 1978. Provisions exist for governments to tender for air services deemed socially necessary which cannot be provided commercially. Within the European Union these are subject to rules on subsidies to air transport. Regulation, nevertheless, increasingly restricts the opportunity for providing such support. A recent scheme is the Route Development Fund (RDF), implemented in Scotland and then in other parts of the UK. The difference between RDF and other support mechanisms such as the designation of Public Service Obligation (PSO) status is its focus on underpinning development of new potentially viable routes. In contrast, a key objective of PSO support is to promote social inclusion. The overall aim of the RDF has been to provide incentives to initiate new direct links that benefit the overall economic development of the region. While new routes are ultimately expected to be financially self-supporting the RDF facilitates initial sharing of risk between airports and airlines. The overall objective of this paper is to provide evidence of the robustness of the case for the RDF scheme within the wider context of support mechanisms generally. The paper is informed by an independent evaluation of the RDF routes in Scotland.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The evidence suggests that the RDF has significantly increased passenger flows, successfully improved travel conditions for business and leisure passengers, increased the gross value added impact to the wider Scottish economy, resulted in an increase in tourism and jobs, and provided a vital tool for some social inclusion impacts in rural areas. A series of passenger and operator surveys has suggested that nearly two-thirds of the non-Scottish businesses interviewed see the RDF services they use as instrumental in maintaining connectivity and competitiveness in Scotland. The importance of RDF flights to business connectivity seems to be reinforced where nearly three-quarters of non-Scottish businesses stated that the RDF supported flights have reduced the feeling that Scotland is remote from the centres of business activity. The social inclusion benefits experienced by users of these RDF services include reducing the perceptions of the remoteness of parts of Scotland, especially rural areas and the islands.