داستان پایان ناپذیر - الگوهای تعامل و توسعه اقتصادی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|6988||2013||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||11330 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 42, Issue 3, April 2013, Pages 443–454
Industrial marketing and purchasing is an interesting phenomenon. On the surface it appears as very mundane, a simple day-to-day activity performed by purchasers, sales personnel, and technical specialists; i.e. most often by professions representing ‘middle management’. As such, it is not surrounded with any of the greater prestige ascribed to more hyped business activities, such as financing and strategy. Furthermore, industrial marketing and purchasing is seldom recognised as being of any greater importance for society at large. In policy circles, for example the UN, OECD and EU, where they stress the importance of innovation, productivity and growth, industrial marketing and purchasing is rarely mentioned as a related phenomenon. Behind the scenes, however, an empirical, much more challenging view is outlined. When the content and the effects of industrial marketing and purchasing processes are scrutinised empirically, these activities appear as perhaps the most important source for business development, industrial renewal, efficiency and innovation. From this perspective, industrial marketing and purchasing seems to be a critical phenomenon for creating prosperity for both companies and communities and for general economic growth. It is this role of industrial marketing and purchasing that we highlight and discuss in this article. Based on extensive empirical research results, we argue that interaction is the main ingredient in these processes. This implies that the supplier–customer interaction has a central development function for efficiency and innovativeness, for companies as well as for the economy at large. Thus, there is a strong need to include and consider this key engine for dynamics (and its role in developing materialised structures as well as ideas) in any theoretical study of economic development.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The never ending story, or the dynamics of the business landscape, has a main distinct source — interaction. And it is a source with distributed and multifaceted effects — wanted by some, unwanted by others. Interaction means to react on the involved counterparts' acting. Thus, the interaction process has effects on each resource involved. Therefore, each single interaction has a different effect for each actor with an interest in the involved resources. Furthermore, no interaction is an island; the resources and those representing them are involved in other interaction processes and are bringing with them what's achieved in earlier interactions. This means that the outcome of one interaction process creates effects – but different ones – in other interaction processes. These distributed effects will be beneficial for some interaction processes, while for others they will create severe obstacles. Thus, the never ending story is far from a simple, linear chain of actions; it is a complex pattern of actions and reactions where the effects on the resources involved are distributed among different interactions — for better and for worse. Thus, every single interaction is a part of some larger interaction patterns that are far away from harmonised machineries but rather appear as mixes of forced connections. These forced connections among interactions create interaction patterns that influence and direct the development of both single business actors and the larger business landscape. The features of these larger interaction patterns, which are not designed by any individual business or political actors, shape innovation, influence productivity, and determine the profit distribution. Thus, together interactions are related to buying and selling — where each can appear as quite mundane are forming larger interaction patterns that are significant for the contemporary business landscape as well as for how it will develop. A major conclusion is that the scientific knowledge about these interaction processes – how they are forced into patterns and how these patterns create innovations and productivity and distribute profits – is quite limited, and in some aspects even completely missing. Thus, a related main conclusion must be that we have a challenging research task in front of us. We have to find much more precise ways to describe, characterise and analyse single interactions as well as patterns of interaction — and above all, their consequences for single companies, for the larger business landscape, for specific places, for nations, for governments, and last but not least, for society at large including democracy. On this route, we have just taken the first steps and gained a first basic knowledge of business interaction processes. In this article we started out from a simple research model and we end in a much more complex one (see Fig. 4). In this model we have put interaction at the centre where it is highly influenced by some external factors and, in turn, is creating some outcomes that affect the basic influencing factors. This process looks as if it's completely dependent on the characteristics of the interaction. It is the content of the interaction that determines the outcome and thereby also the speed and direction of the development process. Furthermore, every such process is just one sequence in a never ending story of economic development where interaction is the main driving force. However, as mentioned above, our research is still in an initial phase and there is so much more to do. This is especially true for how interaction patterns are related to economic outcomes and societal development. Here we have numerous studies in front of us concerning how interaction patterns are related first to innovations, in what direction, reflecting what interests, and second to productivity, with what consequences for particular companies and spaces, and finally to power and profit distribution, from and to whom are they distributed. The only problem is that the results of these studies are already needed today.