نظارت بر هزینه بهبودیافته و کنترل از طریق سیستم مدیریت ارزش کسب شده
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|7016||2012||4 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3010 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Acta Astronautica, Available online 13 November 2012
As economic pressure and competition for budget among federal agencies has increased, there has been an increasing need for more granular data and robust management information systems. This is especially true for the execution of major civilian space programs. This need has resulted in new program management requirements being implemented in an attempt to limit cost and schedule growth. In particular, NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 7120.5D requires the implementation of an Earned Value Management System (EVMS) compliant with the requirements of American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Electronic Industries Alliance Standard 748-B. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) program management team at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) made a decision to implement an EVMS on RBSP during Phase B—a year earlier than specified in the contractual Phase C reporting requirement as defined in the NPR. This decision was made so that the project would have the benefit of 12 months of training and hands-on implementation during Phase B. Although there were a number of technical and process hurdles encountered during Phase B and into Phase C, the system was working well when the Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) was held in August 2009. The IBR was a success because it met the review requirements. It was also clear to all IBR participants that the EVMS was providing value to the project management team. Although the IBR pointed out some areas of concern regarding process and ANSI compliance, the system had markedly improved the project's ability to monitor cost and schedule. This, in turn, allowed the project team to foresee problems in advance, formulate corrective actions, and implement course corrections without causing significant adverse impact to the project. Opponents of EVMS systems often communicate the unfavorable opinion that EVMS systems create unnecessary cost and administration. Although it is undeniable that EVMS implementation does not occur without cost, the cost is minimal in comparison to the benefits of successful implementation. This paper will focus on the implementation of EVMS on the RBSP project, explain EV processes and the implementation's cost, and analyze the benefits of EVMS to provide insight into cost/benefit considerations for other projects considering EVMS implementation. This paper will do this by focusing on the following points: (1) RBSP is the first full-up implementation of earned value management (EVM) at JHU/APL; (2) RBSP EVM started in Phase B; (3) RBSP EVM implementation has been working well in Phase C/D; (4) RBSP EVM implementation has been recognized by Goddard Space Flight Center and NASA Headquarters as successful; and (5) an assessment of the benefits of EVMS to the project management team and sponsor shows that the system's benefits outweigh the cost of implementation.
The goal of the JHU/APL EVMS is to provide Space Department (SD) management with a consistent, standard framework for assessing project performance. The basic tenets of earned value management (EVM) have been introduced and used within the JHU/APL SD on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) project. The EVMS currently interfaces with the systems that comprise the accounting system and scheduling tool and incorporates data from both to produce the output necessary for earned value (EV) data production. These data are comprised of an Integrated Master Schedule (IMS), Contract Performance Reports, a Variance Analysis Report (VAR), and monthly schedule reports. This output has allowed the SD project management team to make timely decisions regarding the project, provided a sound basis for project cost estimates and funding requirements, and assisted in meeting the project reporting requirements for the contract cost/schedule performance measurement data.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
There have been studies on the marginal cost of maintaining the EVMS criteria on a major procurement. Costs range in these studies from initial implementation efforts to the cost of maintaining an EVMS within the American National Standards Institute guidelines for a compliant system. Within the studies, costs can range up to 5% of the contract cost . Other studies have looked at what drives the cost of an implementation to meet the intent of the guidelines. Some of the cost drivers pointed out included excessive documentation, excessive levels of detail in the work breakdown structure, and written variance analysis reports . The estimated cost at completion, for the EVMS, on RBSP is 1.22% of the total estimated project cost. This estimate is well within the range of previous studies conducted on the costs of an EVM process. The question remains—was the implementation and the cost of having an EVMS on the project worth it? The answer to that is yes. The key elements for success of the EVMS on RBSP had to do with the project teams' ability in planning, monitoring, and controlling the project with the right balance between process and results. Stakeholders on RBSP realized that this balance would not be easy to achieve. What made the EVMS work were the steps taken to achieve this balance. The EVMS team never lost sight of trying to show value at every step in the process. This was done by showing value to the CAMs by having quarterly Estimate to Complete reviews, VARs written by the EV team and edited by CAMs/PM, the EV data available in a server environment for ease of access, and monthly schedule data input with EV personnel ready to interface with the CAMs and to provide feedback. Demonstrating this added value to the CAMs and to the project management team fostered an environment that was effective in controlling against cost and schedule issues that arose. This level of control has allowed the project to stay within its Contract Target Cost throughout Phase C/D of the project lifecycle.