تلاش بازیابی حافظه و فراحافظه در مواجهه با اطلاعات غلط
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|70969||2012||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 67, Issue 1, July 2012, Pages 45–58
Retrieval demand, as implemented through test format and retrieval instructions, was varied across two misinformation experiments. Our goal was to examine whether increasing retrieval demand would improve the relationship between confidence and memory performance, and thereby reduce misinformation susceptibility. We hypothesized that improving the relationship between confidence and memory performance would improve controlled processes at retrieval. That is, when confidence and memory performance were well calibrated, participants would be able to withhold incorrect responses if given the opportunity. To examine the relationship between memory retention, confidence, and controlled withholding, we compared older and younger adults’ performance on a forced memory test, where participants could not withhold responses, and on a free test, where participants were encouraged to withhold responses. Confidence judgments were collected after forced responding. Retrieval demand was manipulated indirectly through type of test (cued recall vs. recognition) and directly through retrieval instructions. The results demonstrated that increasing retrieval demands improved memory retention, metamemorial monitoring and effective withholding. This was particularly pronounced when participants received misleading information. Finally, older adults required explicit direction to effectively monitor memory and institute successful controlled withholding.