شواهدی که بازخورد بارورفلکسها حافظه بصری اتفاقی بلندمدت در مردان را تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|71140||2005||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4194 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Volume 84, Issue 3, November 2005, Pages 168–174
Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity at the time of acquisition is associated with human memory. However, rather than SNS activity per se, it may be afferent baroreflex feedback that is responsible for this effect. A pharmacological design was employed to unload (SNP, sodium nitro-prusside) and load (norepinephrine) baroreceptors. In addition to two placebo periods, epinephrine and esmolol (a peripherally acting β1-blocker) served as control conditions for altered cardiac perception. During drug infusion blood pressure, heart rate, and perception of heartbeat were tested. Twenty-four healthy men were participated. The participants viewed emotional slides while their electromyographic eye blink responses to random noise bursts were measured (affective startle modulation paradigm) to determine potential drug impact on emotional processing. Subjects were not informed that memory testing would take place after 4 weeks. Drugs did not impact startle, thus indicating unbiased emotional processing at the time of acquisition. Norepinephrine had no effect on heartbeat perception, but improved (p = .002) recognition memory. SNP (p = .0001) increased heartbeat perception but impaired (p = .038) recognition memory. Epinephrine, on the other hand, increased heartbeat perception (p = .0001) yet did not impair but partially improve memory (effect on high arousing pictures only: p = .05). Heartbeat perception in the placebo condition did not correlate with recognition memory (p’s > .5). We suggest that baroreflex unloading, with subsequent feedback activation of the SNS, impairs long-term incidental visual recognition memory in humans while baroreflex loading enhances it. Further, we propose that these memory effects are neither secondary to cardiac sensations that accompany SNS activation nor to altered emotional picture processing at the time of acquisition.