اثر سطح معیار بر روی حافظه انجمنی: شواهد برای عدم تقارن انجمنی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|71384||2014||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9602 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 75, August 2014, Pages 14–26
A wealth of research has established that retrieval practice promotes subsequent memory, particularly when the retrieval attempt is successful. Furthermore, the number of successful retrievals during practice (i.e., criterion level) dramatically influences final test performance. For example, Vaughn and Rawson (2011) had participants learn Lithuanian–English word pairs via test–restudy practice until they were correctly recalled. Despite retrieval practice always occurring in the forward direction during practice (A – ?), performance increased as a function of criterion level both on final forward (A – ?) and backward (? – B) cued recall tests. Importantly, the performance gain across criterion levels appeared asymmetric, as the gains were much larger in the forward versus backward cued recall direction. However, one potential explanation for the observed asymmetry in criterion level effects is that the materials strongly favored forward cued recall, as retrieving Lithuanian versus English is inherently more difficult for native English speakers. The present experiments utilized English–English pairs to more appropriately investigate whether the effects of criterion level on associative memory are symmetric or asymmetric. Across experiments, results from recall and recognition tests indicated that criterion level effects on associative memory are asymmetric. Advantages in forward versus backward cued recall could not be attributed to differences in cue memory or target memory, indicating differences in forward and backward associative memory.