بازنمایی های عصبی در طول خواب: از پردازش حسی تا ردیابی حافظه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|71436||2007||25 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||16320 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Volume 87, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 416–440
In the course of a day, the brain undergoes large-scale changes in functional modes, from attentive wakefulness to the deepest stage of sleep. The present paper evaluates how these state changes affect the neural bases of sensory and cognitive representations. Are organized neural representations still maintained during sleep? In other words, despite the absence of conscious awareness, do neuronal signals emitted during sleep contain information and have a functional relevance? Through a critical evaluation of the animal and human literature, neural representations at different levels of integration (from the most elementary sensory level to the most cognitive one) are reviewed. Recordings of neuronal activity in animals at presentation of neutral or significant stimuli show that some analysis of the external word remains possible during sleep, allowing recognition of behaviorally relevant stimuli. Event-related brain potentials in humans confirm the preservation of some sensory integration and discriminative capacity. Behavioral and neuroimaging studies in humans substantiate the notion that memory representations are reactivated and are reorganized during post-learning sleep; these reorganisations may account for the beneficial effects of sleep on behavioral performance. Electrophysiological results showing replay of neuronal sequences in animals are presented, and their relevance as neuronal correlates of memory reactivation is discussed. The reviewed literature provides converging evidence that structured neural representations can be activated during sleep. Which reorganizations unique to sleep benefit memory representations, and to what extent the operations still efficient in processing environmental information during sleep are similar to those underlying the non-conscious, automatic processing continually at work in wakefulness, are challenging questions open to investigation.