دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 72040
عنوان فارسی مقاله

تفاوت های جنسی شناختی در وظایف استدلال: شواهدی از نمونه برزیل از تنظیمات آموزشی

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
72040 2013 15 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.
عنوان انگلیسی
Cognitive sex differences in reasoning tasks: Evidence from Brazilian samples of educational settings
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Intelligence, Volume 41, Issue 1, January–February 2013, Pages 70–84

کلمات کلیدی
تفاوت های جنسی؛ اطلاعات - وظایف استدلال؛ مردم برزیل؛ عامل G
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله تفاوت های جنسی شناختی در وظایف استدلال: شواهدی از نمونه برزیل از تنظیمات آموزشی

چکیده انگلیسی

Sex differences on the Attention Test (AC), the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and the Brazilian Cognitive Battery (BPR5), were investigated using four large samples (total N = 6780), residing in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo. The majority of samples used, which were obtained from educational settings, could be considered a nonprobability sampling. Females outperformed males on the AC (by 2 IQ points), whereas males slightly outperformed females on the SPM (by 1.5 IQ points). On the BPR5, sex differences favoring males were statistically significant (on average 6.2 IQ points). The largest difference was in Mechanical Reasoning (13 IQ points), and the smallest was in Spatial Reasoning (5 IQ points). In addition, two methods were adopted for determining whether sex differences existed at the level of general intelligence. First, a g factor score was estimated after principal axis factoring of test scores. Men had an advantage of 3.8 IQ points (statistically significant) on the g score, which was reduced to 2.7 IQ points (not significant), when the g score was estimated without including Mechanical Reasoning. Second, a confirmatory factor analysis approach was conducted that allowed testing of mean differences at the latent variable level. Again, sex differences favoring males were found (0.23 or 3.44 IQ points). Regarding educational and SES variables, some sex differences favoring males were found in the SPM and in the BPR5. In general, our results agree with studies that identify small, but consistent cognitive sex differences in reasoning tasks. Societal implications are discussed.

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