دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 733
عنوان فارسی مقاله

انعطاف پذیری سیاست های پولی، مدیریت ریسک، و اختلالات مالی

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
733 2010 5 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
خرید مقاله
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عنوان انگلیسی
Monetary policy flexibility, risk management, and financial disruptions
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Journal of Asian Economics, Volume 21, Issue 3, June 2010, Pages 242–246

کلمات کلیدی
سیاست پولی - مدیریت ریسک - بحران مالی - پیشرفت تدریجی - حلقه بازخورد نامطلوب -
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چکیده انگلیسی

This paper argues that the monetary policy that is appropriate during an episode of financial market disruption is likely to be quite different than in times of normal market functioning. When financial markets experience a significant disruption, a systematic approach to risk management requires policymakers to be preemptive in responding to the macroeconomic implications of incoming financial market information, and decisive actions may be required to reduce the likelihood of an adverse feedback loop. The central bank also needs to exhibit flexibility—that is, less inertia and gradualism than would otherwise be typical—not only in moving decisively to reduce downside risks arising from a financial market disruption, but also in being prepared to take back some of that insurance in response to a recovery in financial markets or an upward shift in inflation risks.

مقدمه انگلیسی

Before considering the appropriate policy response to strains in financial markets, it is essential to consider the sources of these strains and the potential consequences for the macroeconomy. In general, the U.S. financial system is an efficient mechanism for channeling funds to individuals or corporations with worthy investment opportunities, because the financial markets are highly competitive and provide strong incentives for collecting and processing information. Although financial markets and institutions deal with large volumes of information, some of this information is by nature asymmetric; that is, one party to a financial contract (typically the lender) has less accurate information about the likely distribution of outcomes than does the other party (typically the borrower). Historically, banks and other financial intermediaries have played a major role in reducing the asymmetry of information, partly because these firms tend to have long-term relationships with their clients. Recent years have witnessed the development of new types of financial institutions and of new markets for trading financial products, and these innovations have had the potential (not always realized) to contribute to the efficient flow of information. The continuity of this information flow is crucial to the process of price discovery—that is, the ability of market participants to assess the fundamental worth of each financial asset. During periods of financial distress, however, information flows may be disrupted and price discovery may be impaired. As a result, such episodes tend to generate greater uncertainty, which contributes to higher credit spreads and greater reluctance to engage in market transactions. As I noted in Mishkin (2007a) financial disruptions are associated with two distinct types of risk: valuation risk and macroeconomic risk. Valuation risk refers to the extent that market participants become more uncertain about the returns on a specific asset, especially in cases where the security is highly complex and its underlying creditworthiness is relatively opaque. In the current crisis, for example, this type of risk has been central to the repricing of many structured credit products, as investors have struggled to understand how potential losses in subprime mortgages might filter through the various layers of securities linked to these loans. While valuation risk is relevant for individual investors, monetary policymakers are concerned with macroeconomic risk. In particular, strains in financial markets can spill over to the broader economy and have adverse consequences on output and employment. Furthermore, an economic downturn tends to generate even greater uncertainty about asset values, which could initiate an adverse feedback loop in which the financial disruption restrains economic activity; such a situation could lead to greater uncertainty and increased financial disruption, causing a further deterioration in macroeconomic activity, and so on. This phenomenon is generally referred to as the financial accelerator (Bernanke and Gertler, 1989, Bernanke et al., 1996 and Bernanke et al., 1999). The quality of balance sheets of households and firms comprise a key element of the financial accelerator mechanism, because some of the assets of each borrower may serve as collateral for its liabilities. The use of collateral helps mitigate the problem of asymmetric information, because the borrower's incentive not to engage in excessive risk-taking is strengthened by the threat of losing the collateral: If a default does occur, the lender can take title to the borrower's collateral and thereby recover some or all of the value of the loan. However, a macroeconomic downturn tends to diminish the value of many forms of collateral, thereby exacerbating the impact of frictions in credit markets and reinforcing the propagation of the adverse feedback loop.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

The monetary policy that is appropriate during an episode of financial market disruption is likely to be quite different than in times of normal market functioning. When financial markets experience a significant disruption, a systematic approach to risk management requires policymakers to be preemptive in responding to the macroeconomic implications of incoming financial market information, and decisive actions may be required to reduce the likelihood of an adverse feedback loop. The central bank also needs to exhibit flexibility—that is, less inertia and gradualism than would otherwise be typical—not only in moving decisively to reduce downside risks arising from a financial market disruption, but also in being prepared to take back some of that insurance in response to a recovery in financial markets or an upward shift in inflation risks. Finally, while I have argued that monetary policy needs to be decisive and timely in responding to a financial market disruption, a lot of art as well as science is involved in determining the severity and duration of the disruption and the associated implications for the macroeconomy (Mishkin, 2009). Indeed, assessing the macroeconomic risks to output and inflation in such circumstances remains among the most difficult challenges faced by monetary policymakers.

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