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|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|7397||2011||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 38, Issue 5, May 2011, Pages 5438–5447
Open shop scheduling problems (OSSP) are one of the most time-consuming works in scheduling problems. Currently, many artificial intelligence algorithms can reduce the problem-solving time to an acceptable time range, and even can further downsize the range of solution space. Although the range of solution space is technically downsized, in most scheduling algorithms every partial solution still needs to be completely solved before this solution can be evaluated. For example, if there is a schedule with 100 operations, then all 100 operations must be scheduled before the scheduler can evaluate its fitness. Therefore, the time–cost of unnecessary partial solutions is no longer saved. In order to improve the weakness stated above, this paper proposes a new bee colony optimization algorithm, with an idle-time-based filtering scheme, according to the inference of “the smaller the idle-time, the smaller the partial solution”, and the “smaller the makespan (Cmax) will be”. It can automatically stop searching a partial solution with insufficient profitability, while the scheduler is creating a new scheduling solution, and therefore, save time–cost for the remaining partial solution. The architecture and details of the bee colony optimization heuristic rule is detailed in this paper.
The shop-scheduling problem can be simply introduced as a problem of redistribution of resources or a problem of rearrangement of operations order. Open shop scheduling problem (OSSP) is more difficult than JSSP and FSSP because its operations have no predefined order. When m > =3, OSSP is proved as a NP-complete problem ( Garey and Johnson, 1979 and Gonzalez and Sahni, 1976). In recent years, many heuristic rules for solving OSSP have been presented. One of the earliest heuristic rules is the branch and bound method, which regards the solution space as a tree with limited branches. Through the bound design of scientists, such as lower bound (the lower bound of a solution), the searching range of the solution space can be effectively downsized. The advantage of the branch and bound method is that the solution space is a clear tree structure, whose branches can be examined without omission to find a feasible solution. Its weakness is that the changes of feasible solutions are concentrated on certain branches, thus, that its feasible solution has an inherent lack of changeability. Intelligent heuristic rules for various colonies have aroused widespread exploration and application in recent years, such as GA, ACO, PSO, BCO, and their combinations. These heuristic rules integrate the techniques of random a number generator, parallel operations, probability rules, fitness functions, tabu serial, etc., and in the face of a problem with large solution space, attempt to solve problems, where a feasible solution lacks changeability, and to effectively exclude bad solutions more quickly, in order to come close to the optima or even obtain the optima. Louis and Xu (1996) proposed to integrate the concepts of GA and CBRP, of which CBRP is directed at special cases to provide specific problem-solving inference principles. Prins (2000) suggested that, the characteristics of individuals in a GA colony were differed from each other, and their chromosomes could be rearranged to be applicable to the detection of a global optima from quasi-optimal schedules, meaning a feasible solution with diversity, found through GA, could meet the needs of feasible solutions from a large solution space. Liaw (2000) developed a HGA that incorporated a local improvement procedure, based on TS, for solving the open shop scheduling problem. The incorporation of the local improvement procedure enabled the algorithm to perform a genetic search over the subspace of the local optima, and then, TS performed the local improvement procedure, which costs heavy computing time on a computer, and therefore, it is only performed in several rounds of the local improvement procedure. Pan and Huang (2009) proposed a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) for no-wait job shop scheduling problems. In this paper, the chromosome was represented by a vector of integer numbers. The hybridizing method was the Order Crossover adopted by Brizuela et al. The mutation method was to randomly exchange two genes in the same chromosome. A genetic operation was defined by cutting out a section of genes from a chromosome, for treatment as a sub problem. This sub problem was then transformed into an asymmetric traveling salesman problem (ATSP), and solved with a heuristic algorithm. Subsequently, this section, with a new sequence, was returned to replace the original section of chromosome. The experimental results showed that this hybrid genetic algorithm could accelerate the convergence and improve solution quality. Blum (2005) hybridized ant colony optimization (ACO) with a beam search to overcome difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This method caused the probability ACO mechanism to produce a group of complete solutions, and then used the beam search to perform improvement procedures of partial solutions. This method could randomly search the solution space and direct the solution to optimal branches. Sha and Hsu (2008) modified the particle position representation using priorities, and the particle movement using an insert operator, and implemented a modified parameterized active schedule generation algorithm (mP-ASG) to decode a particle position in a schedule. In mP-ASG, the search area between non-delay schedules and active schedules could be reduced or increased by controlling the maximum delay time allowed. Zhang and Sun (2009) proposed an alternate two-phase particle swarm optimization algorithm, called ATPPSO, to solve flow shop-scheduling problems, with an objective of minimizing makespan, which included two processes, the attraction process, and the repulsive process, which executed alternatively. In the attraction process, every particle was attracted to the individual optimum location and current global optimum location. In the repulsive process, every particle could avoid the worst individual location, which could not only diversify the colonies, but also increase the speed to the convergence of ATPPSO algorithm. Kuo et al. (2009) proposed an efficient a new hybrid particle swarm optimization model, named HPSO, to solve flow shop-scheduling problems. HPSO combined a random-key (RK) encoding scheme and an individual enhancement (IE) scheme. The RK encoding scheme could encode the locations in RK virtual space as locations in a FSSP solution space. In the RK virtual space, each location was represented by a vector of real numbers, while in FSSP solution space, each location was represented by a vector of integer numbers. For example, locations (0.3, 0.5, 0.2, and 0.4) in the RK virtual space could be encoded as locations (3, 1, 4, and 2) in the FSSP solution space. The advantage of using the RK encoding scheme was that it could make full use of the query ability of PSO. The idea of an IE scheme was to exchange the order of two operations in the same job, and if the makespan after the exchange was good, it was retained. Using an IE scheme could enhance the local search ability of particle swarm. Chong et al. (2006) proposed a novel approach that used the honeybee foraging model to solve job shop-scheduling problems. This approach decided whether the branch from node A or node B was formed by the side length ratio between nodes A and B, as well as the heuristic distance between nodes A and B. The branching probability was calculated according the average profitability of the previous round. Wong et al. (2008) published the Big Valley Landscape Exploitation (BVLE) method, which proposes to define a sole search space, called a landscape, when a heuristic search approach was applied to a combinatorial optimization problem. Exploring the search space with different numbers of search operations could create different landscapes, as the content of the landscape might change with the number of heuristic operations. The structures of these landscapes could help search for the global optima. In the BVLE structure, the local optima in some clusters may tend to appear near other local optima, and every cluster would form a valley centered on the global optimum. BVLE suggested that the new starting point for a search should be based on the previous local optimum, other than a random point in the search, because good candidate solutions can often be found near a local optimum. This study proposes a new bee colony optimization algorithm, with an idle-time-based filtering scheme, which can automatically stop searching a partial solution with insufficient profitability, while the scheduler is creating a new scheduling solution, and therefore, save on time–cost for the remaining partial solution. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces OSSP; Section 3 describes the born foraging behaviors of a bee colony; Section 4 defines the computerized bee colony behaviors; Section 5 describes the origin and development of ASG, and then summarizes the mP-ASG used in experiments; Section 6 discusses the experimental results.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper proposes a novel bee colony optimization algorithm for solving OSSP, which could largely decrease the T (the summation of all time–costs for obtaining all solutions) and t (the time–cost for obtaining the optima) times of the algorithm. The concrete details of heuristic rules of solving combinatorial optimization problems would vary with different problems. In order to shorten the time–cost for obtaining a possible bad solution, an idle-time-based filtering scheme is presented based on the processes of the Forward Pass of bee’s foraging behaviors. The scheme takes each scheduling operation as a foraging area; and in the course of bee colony foraging, the idle-time of partial scheduling is regarded as the reciprocal of profitability, therefore, the larger the idle-time is, the smaller the profitability is. When the profitability of a partial foraging route of a bee is smaller than the average profitability accepted by the colony, this scheduler would automatically stop searching the foraging trip of this particular bee, while the scheduler continues creating a new scheduling solution, thus, saving time–cost for remaining partial solutions. Teodorovic et al. (2006) adopted the operations of abandon, continue, dance, and recruitment of the peers in the Backward Pass. In order to highlight the classification operations of information sharing and division of work by forager bees in the Backward Pass, this paper adjusts the Backward Pass for the roles of classification operations for dancer, follower, and scout. This adjustment converts the classification of abandon routes, dance, and recruitment the peers into the classification of follower or dancer, and turns the operation of continuing in the classification of scout. This classification makes clear the roles played by different forager bees. For the BCO heuristic rules, future study could attempt to develop a new “profitability equation”, and new methods to “follow” the dancer bee. For OSSP, future study can use a “different decoder” to decode the priorities of various heuristic rules into a schedule. The new BCO framework developed by this paper provides a novel method of viewing computerized bee colony heuristic rules. Future researchers could use or add this new BCO framework into their fields of application for solving other scheduling problems or combinatorial optimization problems.