بهبود وضعیت ارگونومیک در اتاق عمل یکپارچه برای جراحیهای لاپاراسکوپی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|7729||2011||8 صفحه PDF||7 صفحه WORD|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Air Transport Management, Volume 17, Issue 6, November 2011, Pages 339–346
شکل 1. همیشه یک جفت عکس از اتاق عمل گرفتهمیشود که بهطور همزمان و از دو زاویهی دید مختلف گرفتهشدهاند.
شکل2. نرمافزار PCMAN مدلِ قاب سیمی جراح را روی هر دو عکس قرار میدهد. دو تصویر اول واقعی هستند (شکل 1) ئر PC دیجیتالی میشوند و سپس مانکن بااستفاده از PCMAN طراحی میشود.
شکل 3. مانیتورها در سمت چپ بیمار و در نزدیکی سر او قرار دارند. پس از مقایسهی میان موقعیتِ طراحی شده توسط کامپیوتر بااستفاده از RAMSIS و مدلِ راحتی که از طریق آنالیز PCMAN بهدست آمده است،
Middle Eastern airlines are changing the dynamics of international aviation as Emirates, Qatar Airways and Etihad Airways are quickly emerging as the new global challengers. The region’s airports are also undergoing a rapid transformation to remain in line with the exponential traffic growth that is forecast. This paper examines the relentless growth of Emirates, and investigates the various strategies that underpin its core competencies, which are responsible for its 20 years of consecutive profitability. The paper establishes that the underlying formula for Emirates’ success is largely attributed to its hub and spoke operation, competitive cost structure and the strong leverage of its brand.
Over recent years, there has been a major shift in the global air transport market as the Middle East’s carriers, and in particular Arabian Gulf based airlines, have altered the way traffic flows are being routed. In 2008, passenger growth rates (in terms of RPKs) for the Middle East were 7% – more than four times the global average. The Gulf based carriers are largely responsible for this growth and have capitalised on their geographical centricity by cannibalising the traditional traffic flows between Asian and European hubs, and by connecting secondary cities as a result of exercising their sixth freedom traffic rights. It is estimated that around 4.5 billion people reside within an 8-hour flight of the Middle East, providing the potential for a large part of the world’s population to connect through a single stop. Emirates Airline is the dominant carrier, although Qatar Airways and Etihad Airways, combined, are roughly 70% of its size.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Airlines from the Middle East are now an important component of the global air transport market. The region’s airlines are capitalising on its unique geographical position, essentially half way between Asia and Europe, with some 4.5 billion people residing within an 8-hour flight radius. However, it is the growth of Emirates Airline, Qatar Airways and Etihad Airways that has been reshaping the competitive dynamics of the industry. These carriers are growing traffic by cannibalising the traditional flows between Asian and European hubs, and by connecting secondary cities as a result of exercising their 6th freedom traffic rights. An airport master plan to create three corresponding mega-hubs is also unfolding to handle the increases in traffic. Emirates has been pushing into new markets while expanding its existing operations. As liberalisation spreads its footprint across global markets, Emirates is in a position to take full advantage and become a major threat to European and Asian incumbents. An investigation into Emirates’ core competencies reveals three underpinning strategies that are responsible for its continued success. Firstly, its creation of a mega-hub at Dubai enables the domiciled carrier to collect traffic from the six continents that it operates to and then redistribute this traffic over its hub. Secondly, its low cost structure enables it to offer a low fare which in turn triggers traffic. Thirdly, Emirates invests very heavily in developing its brand, and sports sponsorship has become an integral component of its marketing mix.